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AJAX

AJAX is an abbreviation of Asynchronous Javascript and XML. This is a technology to access the server without reloading the page. Which means pressure decrease  on the data transmitting channels. Due to this, response time is reduced and a web app interacts more like a desktop one.

Despite the fact that the name of the technology contains the letter X (from the word XML), it is not necessary to use XML. By AJAX, we mean any communication with the server without reloading the page, organized using JavaScript.

AJAX Advantages

  • Ability to create a convenient web-interface
  • Active user interaction
  • Partial page reload, instead of full
  • The convenience of use

AJAX uses two methods of working with a web page: changing it without reloading it, and dynamically accessing the server.

What can we do with AJAX?

Interface elements

First of all, AJAX is useful for forms and buttons associated with elementary actions: add to cart, subscribe, fulfil some data in the contact form, etc. Such actions on the sites are carried out without reloading the page.

Live Search

Live search is a classic AJAX use case, adopted by modern search engines. A user starts typing a search phrase, and JavaScript offers possible options, getting a list of the most likely additions from the server.

How the System Works

AJAX technology includes the following steps:

  1. A user accesses AJAX; most often this happens by pressing a button, requesting to learn more detailed information.
  2. The service forwards the request to the server along with the associated data. For example, you may need to download some file or specific information from the database.
  3. After receiving the response from the database, the server sends it to the browser.
  4. JavaScript receives the response, decrypts and shows it to the user.

An XMLHttpRequest object is created for data exchange; it performs an intermediary function between the server and the browser. There are two types of requests - GET and POST. GET refers to a document on the server, the web resource’s URL is provided as an argument. You can use the JavaScript Escape feature to ensure query continuity. POST is used for large amounts of data and provide better security level. With POST the user’s data is transferred in the cryptographed way, with GET request all information, including the personal name and passwords, is transferred openly, directly in the body of the request code.

Additional Terms
.Net Framework
The .NET Framework is a software platform released by Microsoft in 2002. The platform is based on the Common Language Runtime (CLR), which is suitable for different programming languages. The CLR functionality is available in any programming language using this environment. The main idea in developing the .NET framework was to ensure developer freedom by allowing to create applications of various types that can run on different devices and in various environments. Main features The .NET framework provides a powerful platform for building apps. Its main features include: Multi-language support. The platform is based on the Common Language Runtime (CLR), thanks to which .NET supports several languages: along with C #, VB.NET, C ++, F #, and various dialects of other languages associated with .NET, such as Delphi. NET. During the process of compiling, the code in any of these languages is assembled in a common language CIL (Common Intermediate Language) - a kind of assembler of the .NET platform. Therefore, we can make separate modules of one application in separate semantics. Cross platform .NET is a portable platform (with some restrictions). For example, the latest version of the platform at the moment. NET Framework is supported on most modern Windows OS (Windows 10 / 8.1 / 8/7 / Vista). And thanks to the Mono project, you can create apps that will work on other Linux operating systems, including Android and iOS mobile platforms. Powerful class library. .NET provides a single class library for all supported languages. And whatever application we want to write on C # - a text editor, a chat, or a complex website - one way or another, we will use the .NET class library. A variety of technologies. The common language runtime and the base class library are the basis for a whole stack of technologies that developers can use to build certain applications. For example, ADO.NET technology is designed to work with databases in this technology stack. For building graphical applications with rich interface - WPF technology. For creating websites - ASP.NET, etc. Another noteworthy feature of the .NET framework is automatic garbage collection. And this means that in most cases programmers don’t have to worry about free memory. This CLR itself will call the garbage collector and clear the memory.
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Agile Software Development
- an approach to software development focused on the use of iterative development. This involves the dynamic formation of requirements, and ensures their implementation, by constant interaction and transparency within organised groups of various specialists. There are several methods related to the class of agile development methodologies, in particular extreme programming, DSDM, Scrum, FDD. The main ideas People and interaction are more important than processes and tools; A working product is more important than exhaustive documentation; Cooperation with the customer is more important than agreeing on the terms of the contract; Readiness for change is more important than following the original plan. Most agile methodologies are aimed at minimizing risks by bringing development to a series of short cycles called iterations, which usually last two to three weeks. Each iteration looks like a software project in miniature and includes all the tasks necessary to produce a mini-increase in functionality: planning, requirements analysis, design, programming, testing and documentation. Although a single iteration is usually not enough to release a new version of the product, it is supposed that a flexible software project is ready for potential release at the end of each iteration. At this point, the team reassesses the development priorities. Agile methods emphasize direct face-to-face communication. Most agile teams are located in the same office. As a minimum, the team includes "product owners" (the customer or his or her authorized representative who defines the product requirements, which role can be performed by the project manager, business analyst or client). The team should also include testers, interface designers, technical writers and managers. The general concept of the Agile approach is fixed in the Agile Manifesto. The main metric of agile methods is the working product. Preferring direct communication, agile-methods reduce the amount of written documentation in comparison with other methods. Agile implementation leads to the flexibility of the developed software and provide the customer with the valuable, working program in the shortest period of time. It helps to test the business model on the real market and provide the solution as a skeleton working version, adding more and more features and beauty during the next sprints.
>> Algorithm
is a sequence of instructions designed to perform specific actions. The algorithm, written in the machine language, with the help of computer facilities, is used to provide solutions to problems. In math and computer science, this is a clear specification of how to solve a class of tasks. This can perform data processing, calculations, and automated reasoning duties. Here are some examples: Search engines - these use special algorithms to collect the information in the internet and display to the user relevant results for a specific query from their search index. In programming, algorithms are commonly written as functions, which perform as small programs that can be used by a larger entity. For example, an image displaying application may include a library of special functions, each using a custom algorithm to render different file formats. The image editing program can contain algorithms designed to process and edit image data. Examples of such, include resizing, sharpening, cropping, blurring, color enhancement, and red-eye reduction. There are many ways to perform an operation in a software program. Developers often try to create the most efficient algorithm, by which programmers can ensure that their programs run fast and use minimal system resources. Of course not all algorithms are perfect for the first time. As a result, programmers improve existing algorithms and incorporate them into future software updates. When you see a new version of an "optimized" or "faster performance" software program, it means the new version includes more polished algorithms. Different definitions of an algorithm contain the following series of general requirements: Discreteness - an algorithm should represent the problem solving process as the sequential execution of some simple steps. At the same time, its each step requires a finite length of time. Determinateness. At each moment of time the next step of the work is uniquely determined by the state of the system. Clearness - an algorithm should include only those commands that are accessible to the executor and are included in its command system. Completeness - in the narrower sense of an algorithm as a mathematical function, with properly specified initial data, the algorithm must complete the work and produce the result in a certain number of steps. Massiveness (universality) - an algorithm should be applicable to different sets of initial data. Effectiveness - completion of an algorithm by certain results.
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Additional Terms of Programming
See more words
.Net Framework
The .NET Framework is a software platform released by Microsoft in 2002. The platform is based on the Common Language Runtime (CLR), which is suitable for different programming languages. The CLR functionality is available in any programming language using this environment. The main idea in developing the .NET framework was to ensure developer freedom by allowing to create applications of various types that can run on different devices and in various environments. Main features The .NET framework provides a powerful platform for building apps. Its main features include: Multi-language support. The platform is based on the Common Language Runtime (CLR), thanks to which .NET supports several languages: along with C #, VB.NET, C ++, F #, and various dialects of other languages associated with .NET, such as Delphi. NET. During the process of compiling, the code in any of these languages is assembled in a common language CIL (Common Intermediate Language) - a kind of assembler of the .NET platform. Therefore, we can make separate modules of one application in separate semantics. Cross platform .NET is a portable platform (with some restrictions). For example, the latest version of the platform at the moment. NET Framework is supported on most modern Windows OS (Windows 10 / 8.1 / 8/7 / Vista). And thanks to the Mono project, you can create apps that will work on other Linux operating systems, including Android and iOS mobile platforms. Powerful class library. .NET provides a single class library for all supported languages. And whatever application we want to write on C # - a text editor, a chat, or a complex website - one way or another, we will use the .NET class library. A variety of technologies. The common language runtime and the base class library are the basis for a whole stack of technologies that developers can use to build certain applications. For example, ADO.NET technology is designed to work with databases in this technology stack. For building graphical applications with rich interface - WPF technology. For creating websites - ASP.NET, etc. Another noteworthy feature of the .NET framework is automatic garbage collection. And this means that in most cases programmers don’t have to worry about free memory. This CLR itself will call the garbage collector and clear the memory.
>>
Graphic Design
Graphic design is a process aimed at creating visual graphics for the problem-solving through the use of illustration, typography, and photography. As a discipline graphic design in part focuses on visual communication and presentation. A designer can work with visual arts, typographic design, and page layout techniques. Sections Graphic design can be classified by types of tasks: Calligraphy, fonts, book design. Corporate identity, including brand names and logos. Visual communications, including orientation systems (navigation and other icons). Poster products, including advertising posters. Visual solutions for product packaging, including confectionery and food. The visual style of TV programs and other media products. This is becoming an increasingly integrating profession that unites the methods and principles of various professional disciplines in working with the complex, multi-level subject of visual reality. In addition to the visual text, image, space, graphic design can master other features, such as time, motion, and interactivity. Furthermore it can operate with more diverse means of marketing, economic, and cultural communications. Professional Software for Graphic Design For offset printing: Adobe Photoshop, Gimp (work with raster images), Adobe Illustrator, Inkscape (work with vector images), QuarkXPress and  Adobe InDesign (page layout). For outdoor advertising and screen printing: Corel Draw. Basic Graphic Design Products Graphic design is one of the trends, helping in creation awesome products. For example, product packaging may include organized text,  a logo or other image, and clean design elements, such as color and shapes, that contribute to the overall perception of the picture. Composition is one of the most important graphic design properties, especially when using preliminary materials or other elements. websites book layouts and illustrations advertising and informational posters graphic solution of postcards and postage stamps records and DVDs corporate style and its main element - the logo Brochures, booklets,  calendars and other advertising products souvenir products Advantages of images, implemented via graphic design technic: Low file storage volume  as a result - quick downloading time; Flexibility of usage in adaptive web and mobile interfaces; Great scalability: convenient customisation. Common use of graphic design includes advertising, magazines, packaging, and web.
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Blueprint
is a plan of the future project that may include technical drawings, plans, or engineering designs. It is a fast and flexible way to build a basic project infrastructure. Blueprint allows organising the workflow in the shortest time possible and quickly start developing parts of the program. In general terms, this is a quick way to turn a vague project idea into concrete requirements for its implementation. Why Use Blueprints in Software Development The goal of blueprint is to give developers an opportunity to optimize the process and set up the infrastructure so that they can spend more time on the realization of ideas and projects. Blueprint can be the basis of a project or component of the initial planning. What Blueprint Implies Interactive wireframes in the form of clickable prototypes; Concept design that allows you to see and feel the future product, to bring it color and style; A document describing the product, key values and achievable goals. Blueprint Benefits in Mobile App Development The idea of your application with a detailed implementation plan and future functionality comes to life right on paper. Like a plan that needs to be completed to build a durable building; Use it as a prototype. Since the wireframes are interactive and are provided as a clickable prototype, you can use them to present your product ideas and/or increase your budget. Get more accurate project estimation. With blueprints you will better understand the amount of work that is required for the implementation of each stage, with a detailed breakdown of the cost; You don’t have to spend weeks on creating project documentation; Blueprint can become a part of your business plan, necessary for the successful completion of the project.
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