Internet of Things (IoT) is the concept of a network of physical objects ("things") equipped with built-in technologies for interaction with each other or with the environment, in which the organisation of such networks (specifically excluding human participation) is considered a phenomenon capable of restructuring economic and social processes.
For 2018, the term "Internet of Things" extends not only to cyber-physical systems for "home" use but also to industrial facilities.
The involvement in the IoT of objects of the physical world, not necessarily equipped with a means of connecting to data transmission networks, requires the use of technologies for their identification. Any tech used for automatic identification can be applied in this context: optical identifiers; barcodes; Data Matrix; QR codes; means of locating in real time. With the comprehensive dissemination of the "Internet of things", it is essential to ensure the uniqueness of object identifiers – which, in turn, requires standardisation.
A special role within the Internet of things is played by measurement tools that ensure the transformation of information about the external environment into machine-readable data, thereby filling the computing environment with meaningful information. A wide range of measuring tools is used, from elementary sensors (for example, temperature, pressure, illumination) and consumption metres (such as smart metres) to complex integrated measuring systems.
The range of possible data transmission technologies covers all possible means of wireless and wired networks.
For wireless data transmission, qualities such as efficiency at low speeds, fault tolerance, adaptability and the possibility of self-organisation play a particularly important role in building the "Internet of things".
Among wired technologies, PLC solutions – technologies for building data transmission networks over transmission lines – play an important role in penetrating the "Internet of things", as many applications have access to power networks (for example, vending machines, ATMs, smart metres and lighting control mechanisms are initially connected to the network power supply).