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Artificial neural network (ANN)

Artificial neural network (ANN) is a group of neuron nodes, interconnected with each other. Every circular node works as an artificial neuron that exchanges information with each other, similar to the functional principles of biological neural networks. The whole system is termed ANN.

The main advantage of artificial neural network implementation lies in the ability to perform complex mathematical modelling for emulation. This helps scientists to predict different processes and trends based on the visualisation of these models.

ANN is a simple system of processors (artificial neuron), in which neurons connect and interact reciprocally with each other. Each neuron periodically receives signals and sends them to others. By connecting to a reasonably large network of similar neurons, these single processors can perform quite complex actions.

  • From the point of view of machine learning, neural networks are special cases of discriminant analysis, pattern recognition and grouping methods.
  • From the mathematical point of view, the learning of neural networks is a multiparameter problem of nonlinear optimization.
  • From the development of computation and programming, neural networks are a way to solve efficient parallel problems.
  • From a cybernetic perspective, neural networks are used for problems of adaptive control and robotic algorithms.
  • From the point of view of artificial intelligence, neural networks are the basis of the philosophy of connectionism and the main direction of the structural methods of using computer algorithms to establish the possibility of natural intelligence.

Neural networks are not just programmed, but are also well trained. The possibility of ‘learning’ is one of the main advantages of ANN over traditional algorithms.

Stages of problem solving

  • Data collection for training;
  • Selection of network topology;
  • Preparation and normalization of data;
  • Experimental selection of training parameters;
  • Experimental selection of network characteristics;
  • Actually learning;
  • Checking the adequacy of training;
  • Adjustment of parameters, final training;
  • Verbalization of the network for further use.

Technically, ‘learning’ is to find the coefficient connection  between neurons. During this process, the neural network is able to detect complex dependencies between data input and output and perform generalization. This means that if training succeeds, the network can return the correct results based on data not provided in training samples and incomplete and / or "noisy" and partially distorted data. So, with the help of the ANN we can predict the most probable event. For the business environment, such operations are vital in the financial, medical, construction and any decision-making field.

Additional Terms
Networking Hardwear
Networking hardware is a set of devices necessary for the operation of a computer network, for example: a router, a switch, a hub, a patch panel, etc.   Active networking hardware is equipment containing electronic circuits receiving power from an electrical network or other sources and performing the functions of amplification, signal transformation, and others.  This means such equipment is able to process the signal by special algorithms. In the networks there is a package data transfer, each data package also contains technical information about its source, purpose, the integrity of information, etc, allowing to deliver the package to its destination. Active networking hardware includes the following types of devices: Network adapter - a card that is installed in the computer and provides its connection to the LAN; Repeater - a device, usually with two ports, designed to repeat the signal in order to increase the length of the network segment; Hub (active hub, multiport repeater) - a device with 4-32 ports, used to connect users to the network; Bridge - a device with 2 ports, usually used to combine several LAN (local area network) workgroups, allows you to filter network traffic by analyzing network (MAC) addresses; Switch - a device with several (4-32) ports, used to combine several LAN working groups (otherwise called multiport bridge); Router (router) - used to combine several  LAN workgroups, allows you to filter network traffic by analyzing network (IP) addresses; Retranslator - to create an advanced wireless network with a larger coverage area and is an alternative to a wired network. By default, the device operates in the signal amplification mode and acts as a relay station that catches the signal from the base network router or access point and transfers it to previously unavailable sites. Media converter - a device, usually with two ports, used to convert the data transfer medium (coaxial-twisted pair, twisted-pair optical fibre); A network transceiver is a device, usually with two ports, commonly used to convert the data format. A transceiver can be mentioned as a Medium Access Unit (MAU) in Ethernet network terminology. Additionally to this set of devices, to become a part of the network, a computer must have a network interface card (NIC). Mentioned above networking hardware can be called a set of computer networking devices or network equipment.  
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.Net Framework
The .NET Framework is a software platform released by Microsoft in 2002. The platform is based on the Common Language Runtime (CLR), which is suitable for different programming languages. The CLR functionality is available in any programming language using this environment. The main idea in developing the .NET framework was to ensure developer freedom by allowing to create applications of various types that can run on different devices and in various environments. Main features The .NET framework provides a powerful platform for building apps. Its main features include: Multi-language support. The platform is based on the Common Language Runtime (CLR), thanks to which .NET supports several languages: along with C #, VB.NET, C ++, F #, and various dialects of other languages associated with .NET, such as Delphi. NET. During the process of compiling, the code in any of these languages is assembled in a common language CIL (Common Intermediate Language) - a kind of assembler of the .NET platform. Therefore, we can make separate modules of one application in separate semantics. Cross platform .NET is a portable platform (with some restrictions). For example, the latest version of the platform at the moment. NET Framework is supported on most modern Windows OS (Windows 10 / 8.1 / 8/7 / Vista). And thanks to the Mono project, you can create apps that will work on other Linux operating systems, including Android and iOS mobile platforms. Powerful class library. .NET provides a single class library for all supported languages. And whatever application we want to write on C # - a text editor, a chat, or a complex website - one way or another, we will use the .NET class library. A variety of technologies. The common language runtime and the base class library are the basis for a whole stack of technologies that developers can use to build certain applications. For example, ADO.NET technology is designed to work with databases in this technology stack. For building graphical applications with rich interface - WPF technology. For creating websites - ASP.NET, etc. Another noteworthy feature of the .NET framework is automatic garbage collection. And this means that in most cases programmers don’t have to worry about free memory. This CLR itself will call the garbage collector and clear the memory.
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AJAX
is an abbreviation of Asynchronous Javascript and XML. This is a technology to access the server without reloading the page. Which means pressure decrease  on the data transmitting channels. Due to this, response time is reduced and a web app interacts more like a desktop one. Despite the fact that the name of the technology contains the letter X (from the word XML), it is not necessary to use XML. By AJAX, we mean any communication with the server without reloading the page, organized using JavaScript. AJAX Advantages Ability to create a convenient web-interface Active user interaction Partial page reload, instead of full The convenience of use AJAX uses two methods of working with a web page: changing it without reloading it, and dynamically accessing the server. What can we do with AJAX? Interface elements First of all, AJAX is useful for forms and buttons associated with elementary actions: add to cart, subscribe, fulfil some data in the contact form, etc. Such actions on the sites are carried out without reloading the page. Live Search Live search is a classic AJAX use case, adopted by modern search engines. A user starts typing a search phrase, and JavaScript offers possible options, getting a list of the most likely additions from the server. How the System Works AJAX technology includes the following steps: A user accesses AJAX; most often this happens by pressing a button, requesting to learn more detailed information. The service forwards the request to the server along with the associated data. For example, you may need to download some file or specific information from the database. After receiving the response from the database, the server sends it to the browser. JavaScript receives the response, decrypts and shows it to the user. An XMLHttpRequest object is created for data exchange; it performs an intermediary function between the server and the browser. There are two types of requests - GET and POST. GET refers to a document on the server, the web resource’s URL is provided as an argument. You can use the JavaScript Escape feature to ensure query continuity. POST is used for large amounts of data and provide better security level. With POST the user’s data is transferred in the cryptographed way, with GET request all information, including the personal name and passwords, is transferred openly, directly in the body of the request code.
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Graphic Design
Graphic design is a process aimed at creating visual graphics for the problem-solving through the use of illustration, typography, and photography. As a discipline graphic design in part focuses on visual communication and presentation. A designer can work with visual arts, typographic design, and page layout techniques. Sections Graphic design can be classified by types of tasks: Calligraphy, fonts, book design. Corporate identity, including brand names and logos. Visual communications, including orientation systems (navigation and other icons). Poster products, including advertising posters. Visual solutions for product packaging, including confectionery and food. The visual style of TV programs and other media products. This is becoming an increasingly integrating profession that unites the methods and principles of various professional disciplines in working with the complex, multi-level subject of visual reality. In addition to the visual text, image, space, graphic design can master other features, such as time, motion, and interactivity. Furthermore it can operate with more diverse means of marketing, economic, and cultural communications. Professional Software for Graphic Design For offset printing: Adobe Photoshop, Gimp (work with raster images), Adobe Illustrator, Inkscape (work with vector images), QuarkXPress and  Adobe InDesign (page layout). For outdoor advertising and screen printing: Corel Draw. Basic Graphic Design Products Graphic design is one of the trends, helping in creation awesome products. For example, product packaging may include organized text,  a logo or other image, and clean design elements, such as color and shapes, that contribute to the overall perception of the picture. Composition is one of the most important graphic design properties, especially when using preliminary materials or other elements. websites book layouts and illustrations advertising and informational posters graphic solution of postcards and postage stamps records and DVDs corporate style and its main element - the logo Brochures, booklets,  calendars and other advertising products souvenir products Advantages of images, implemented via graphic design technic: Low file storage volume  as a result - quick downloading time; Flexibility of usage in adaptive web and mobile interfaces; Great scalability: convenient customisation. Common use of graphic design includes advertising, magazines, packaging, and web.
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