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Frame

Frame is a unit of digital data transmission in computer and telecommunication networks. In a packet-switched system, a frame is a simple container for a network. In other telecommunication systems, frames are repeating structures that support time division multiplexing.

  • Frame (HTML) - in web-design: the presentation of multiple HTML documents on a separate web page.
  • Frame rate is the number of images displayed on the screen per time unit, usually expressed in FPS (frames per second)
  • Frame (GUI), a box to save other widgets in the graphical user interface

A frame typically includes a synchronization feature that has a sequence of bits, ‘or symbols’, indicating the receiver, the received symbol, or the beginning and end of the upload data in the bit stream. If the receiver is connected to the system during transmission, it will ignore the information until it detects a new frame synchronization sequence.

Packet switching

In the OSI model of a computer network, a frame is a data unit of the link layer. The frame is the result of the last encapsulation layer before the data is transferred by the physical layer. Each frame is separated from the next frame by an interval. It is a series of bits, usually consisting of a frame synchronization, a packet payload, and a frame check sequence. Examples include Point-to-Point Protocol  frames,Fiber Channel frames, Ethernet frames, and V.42 modem frames.

Typically, several frames of different sizes are nested within each other. For example, when using the PPP protocol in asynchronous serial communication, the 8 bits of each byte consist of a start bit and a stop bit, and the payload data bytes in the network packet are framed by the header and footer, several packets can be framed with bound bytes.

Time division multiplexing

In telecommunications, particularly time division multiplexing (TDM) and time division multiple access variants (TDMA), a frame is a cyclically repeated block of data consisting of a fixed number of time slots; each interval is time used for Logical TDM channels or TDMA transmitters. In this context, a framework is usually an entity at the physical layer. Examples of TDM applications are SONET / SDH circuit-switched B channels and ISDN, while TDMA examples are circuit-switched data used in early cellular voice services. This frame is also an entity for time division duplexing, wherein the handset can transmit during certain time slots while receiving other slots.
Additional Terms
Alpha software
is computer software in the early testing phase. It has basic functions enough to be used, but it is often buggy and lacks features that will be integrated into the final version. Alpha software is often used for internal testing. Internal (Alpha) testing - The stage of testing the program as a whole by testers, usually not developers of the software product, but, as a rule, within the organization or the community developing the product. Also, it can be the stage of adding new functionality, whereby programs can only be used to familiarize themselves with future opportunities. Most often, alpha testing is carried out at an early stage of software development, but in some cases, it can be used for a finished product as an internal acceptance test. Sometimes alpha testing is performed under a debugger or using an integrated development environment that helps to quickly identify the errors found. The detected bugs can be reported to testers for additional investigation in an environment similar to the one in which the program will be used. Typically, alpha testing ends with freezing properties and goes into beta testing.   Beta testing - The stage of active public testing and debugging of the program that passed the alpha testing (if any). Programs of this level can be used by other developers of software for compatibility testing. Nevertheless, the programs of this stage can still contain a large number of errors. Sometimes beta testing is performed in order to get feedback about the product from its future users. Often for free and open source software, the alpha testing phase is characterized by the functional content of the code, and beta testing is the error correction stage. At the same time, as a rule, at each stage of development, intermediate results of work are available to end users.
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Artificial Intelligence
(AI), sometimes referred to as machine intelligence, is the technology of creating intelligent (thinking) computer systems. The basic properties of AI are: language understanding; learning; ability to make decisions and act. AI is associated with using computers to understand human intelligence, but is not limited to biologically plausible methods. This science is connected with psychology, neurophysiology, transhumanism and others. Like all computer science, it uses a mathematical apparatus. Philosophy and robotics are of particular importance.Artificial Intelligence is a top popular scientific area, the foundation to which was laid in 1956. Now it’s growing rapidly, having the evangelists in each progressive enterprise nearly in every country. AI is a complex of related technologies and processes that develop qualitatively and rapidly, for example: natural language processing machine learning expert systems virtual agents (chatbots and virtual helpers) recommendation systems. AI Applications The fields of AI app are quite wide in scope and encompass both familiar technologies and emerging new directions that are far from mass market use, in other words, a whole range of solutions, which span from robotic vacuum cleaners to complex space stations. Artificial Intelligence is not a monolithic subject area. Moreover, some technological directions of AI appear as new sub-sectors of the economy and separate entities, at the same time serving most areas in the economy. The Goal of Artificial Intelligence The traditional goals of AI include  knowledge representation, reasoning, planning, natural language processing,  learning, perception and the ability to manipulate objects. Types of AI Limited Memory AI. Reactive Machines AI. Self-aware AI. Theory of Mind AI. Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI) Artificial Superhuman Intelligence (ASI) More detailed information about these types are available here. AI Perspectives There are two directions for the AI development: To solve the problems associated with the approach of specialized AI systems to human capabilities and their integration, which is realised by human nature. To create an Artificial Mind, representing the integration of already created AI systems into a single system that can solve the problems of mankind. The AI development leads to the adaptation of technologies in classical sectors of the economy, leading to algorithmization of almost the entire functionality of routine operations. Business value of the AI lie in the optimisation and automation of routine processes, which can be implemented via machines in every sphere, from customer support (chatbots and AI adviser) to food processing and construction (3D printers), decreasing the costs and speeding the achievements of results.
>> Bespoke Software
Bespoke software are programs tailor-made to individual customers’ requirements, and are thus wholly unique, as opposed to standard software that is developed and sold to customers as it is (without special features designed to meet particular needs). Bespoke software development is a service delivery, which consists of providing the necessary technical expertise and manpower. Functionalities, delivery schedule and terms of payment are subject to a contract between a service provider and a customer. The customer is heavily involved in the development process and estimates the success of the work. Almost all bespoke systems are application software, the implementation of which demands that the operating system be preloaded onto the user’s PC. The construction of bespoke software has been practised since the 1960s and was initially the only means of obtaining application software. What is in Essence? Standard software often responds to a limited, or insufficient, number of requirements, so bespoke software is usually ordered when there is no equivalent standard software available, i.e. in highly specialised areas. It can also be created in order to bring together disparate products; a common practice with software suites such as ERP and CRM. Bespoke Software Development in Brief Software development is performed gradually in several phases, or milestones: at the end of each phase a client receives a version of the product. Each phase ends with an acceptance testing, whereby he or she verifies that the software is doing what should be expected of it. The software is then tested in many conditions, with real data, possibly accompanied by stress tests designed to make the software fail and see how it rescues itself and returns to normal. Planning in several phases makes it possible to take into account the evolution of the customer's expectations: termination of a phase can inspire the customer, leading them to ask for a more refined product. Payment can be made on an hourly basis – regular payment of the developer's working hours, or fixed price – a fixed price is negotiated at the conclusion of the contract and typically paid in several parts. The fee is between $50 and $300 per hour, depending on the IT vendor. The scope of work required depends on the amount of source code and specifications, and may in some cases exceed a year. In the case of fixed payments, the evolution of the customer's requests may lead to a renegotiation of both the contract and the end cost. Bespoke software is built with special development tools, and the marketing process is very different from that of standard software: the software is considered a project. It is often created from scratch and is therefore not immediately available. The customer is strongly involved in the development work and the geographical proximity between the customer and the supplier counts. The risk of commercial failure is taken by the customer. The acquisition cost is high because it is fully paid by a single client. The ownership of the software and the licence conditions are one of the subjects of the contract signed between the supplier and the customer.
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Additional Terms of Software development
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Net Promoter Score (NPS)
Net Promoter Score (NPS) is an index that identifies customer loyalty to a product or company and is used to assess readiness for re-purchases. How It Works Measuring the NPS loyalty index involves several steps: Consumers are asked to answer the question “What is the probability that you would recommend a company/product/brand to your friends/acquaintances/colleagues?” On a 10-point scale, where 0 corresponds to the answer “I will not recommend it in any way”, and 10 - “ I will surely recommend. " Based on the estimates obtained, all consumers are divided into 3 groups: 9-10 points - product/brand promoters, 7-8 points - passives, 0-6 points - detractors. Calculation of the NPS index itself. NPS =% supporters -% critics As a result, the the user’s loyalty score calculated on the scale from -100 to 100. If all the customers are willing to recommend the product, the score will be about 90-100, if they are not willing to recommend it - the NPS will drop to -90-100 points.   NPS trade mark was registered for the marketing tool, which automates the calculation of the above mentioned data. History Frederick Reichheld is considered the founder of the method, who first announced the method in the article “One Number You Need to Grow”, published in the Harvard Business Review in December 2003. In 2006, he released a book entitled “The Ultimate Question: Driving Good Profits and True Growth”. He continued his arguments on the loyalty, profitability and growth of the company. In 2010, Reichheld conducted research in more than 400 American companies, where the main task was to measure the influence of customer loyalty (measured by NPS) on its growth rate. The main result was the conclusion that the average NPS by market in the industry was 16%, but for companies such as eBay and Amazon NPS it was 75%. Reichheld does not say that communication is present everywhere: it is absent altogether in monopolistic markets. However, industries such as passenger air travel, insurance, and car rental have become a prime example of interconnection. This is obvious, since these companies are service providers, where customer satisfaction and loyalty depend on the level of customer service. As a result, many companies have become adherents of this technology, including Apple, American Express,  eBay, Amazon, Allianz, P & G, Intuit,, Philips, etc. For certain industries, especially software, it has been proven that detractors often stay with the company while passives leave.  This seems to be a relatively high barrier to trade. Faced with criticism of the promoter's score, proponents of the network promoter's approach stated that the proposed statistical analysis only proved that the "recommendation" problem was similar to other indicators in predictive capacity, but failed to solve the real problem and this is the core of the argument presented by Reichheld. Proponents of the method also argue that third-party data analysis is not as good as analyzing the company in its own set of customers, and the actual benefits of the method (simple communication concepts, short survey, customer follow-up features ) exceed any statistical disadvantage of the approach. They also allow inquiries using any other issues to be used in the net promotion system, as long as it meets the criteria to securely classify customers as promoters, passives and detractors.
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Headless browser
is a web browser, which communicates with the user in the command-line mode, without a traditional graphical interface. Headless browsers can automate the controls of a web page in an environment similar to some popular browsers. They are particularly useful for testing web pages because they correctly interpret HTML, style sheets and JavaScript execution with AJAX - such functions that are not always available during testing. In 2009, Google began using headless browsers to help its search engine index AJAX3 sites. Headless Browsers Use Cases Headless browsers can be used for: Web app tests automation. Web page screenshots. Automated tests for JavaScript libraries. Web scraping to data recovery. Website interaction automation. Malicious Use Cases Headless browsers can also be used to: Perform DDOS attacks against websites. Increase the number of views. Automatically search for sites for fraudulent use, for example, confidential identifiers. List of Headless Browsers Here is a list of browsers offering headless functions: PhantomJS - a headless browser using the WebKit engine for rendering its pages and JavaScriptCore for javascript execution. PhantomJS was originally developed in 2010. HTMLUnit - also headless, written in Java. HTMLUnit uses Rhino for the JavaScript. TrifleJS - a version of the scriptable Internet Explorer browser that uses the Trident rendering engine and the V8 JavaScript engine. TrifleJS uses the same API as PhantomJS and, works by using the WebBrowser object of the .NET WebBrowser framework to control the version of IE installed on the machine. Splash - it has HTTP API, Lua scripting and an IPython IDE. Splash is written in Python and uses the WebKit rendering engine. Weboob - a Python library. Emulated Headless Browser These browsers emulate the environment of a browser Zombie.js. a navigation environment for Node.js20,21. ENVJS. a navigation environment is written in JavaScript for the Rhino engine. While they are able to support common browsing functions (HTML parsing, XHR, cookie support, etc.), they can not render and have limited support for DOM events. They usually run faster than a typical browser, but are unable to correctly interpret many sites.
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Software development
is an integral part of software engineering, along with disciplines responsible for the functioning and maintenance of software products. The software development process is the procedure according to which the development of software is performed. Process Steps The development process consists of a number of steps, some of which are shown below. In the waterfall model, they go one after another, in agile models their order or composition changes. Requirements Analysis → Software Specification Software Engineering Programming Software testing System integration Software implementation Software Maintenance Waterfall model Waterfall model was proposed in 1970 by Winston Royce. It provides the consistent implementation of all phases of the project in a strictly fixed order. Once work is completed in one stage it can then move on to the next. The requirements defined at each stage are strictly documented in the form of a technical assignment and are fixed for the entire project development. It finally ends with the release of the software accompanied by a complete set of documentation. Stages of the project in accordance with the waterfall model: Requirements specification; Design; Implementation; Testing; Introduction; Operation and maintenance. Benefits: Full and consistent documentation; It is easy to determine the time and costs for the project. Disadvantages: In the waterfall model, the inaccuracy of any requirement, or its incorrect interpretation, means you have to "roll back" to the early phase of the project; in this case, the required processing not only delays the project team’s schedule, but often leads to a qualitative increase in costs. Iterative and incremental model An alternative to a waterfall model is the so-called iterative and incremental development (IID). The IID model assumes a breakdown of the project lifecycle into a series of iterations, each of which resembles a "mini project", including all development processes to the creation of smaller fragments of functionality, compared to the project as a whole. The goal of each iteration is to get a working version of the software system, including functionality. The final output contains all the required functionality of the product. Thus, with the completion of each iteration, the product evolves one step further. Advantages Simple quality control integration, implemented on each stage (with each new update, elimination of bugs and errors). Fast feedback about implemented changes from real users. The possibility of "rolling back" to the previous successful stage in case of failure. A great flexibility for development: quick implementation of new ideas based on the changing market demands or the growing needs of the enterprise. Disadvantages With iterations, it is necessary to discard the part of the work done previously, that leads to higher cost of the whole project. It’s impossible to evaluate all the risks and vulnerabilities of the IT system, as the whole concept description does not exist. So, a complete understanding of the possibilities and limitations of the project is missing. IID vs Agile In the business society Waterfall is opposed to Agile, based on the difference of approaches to software development. In Waterfall everything should be fixed in advance, whereas in Agile the set of demands is collected only for small time set, which can be implemented within a couple of weeks or month. A clear explanation of the differences in these metodologies can be found here.
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