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Tag

Tags are unstructured keywords, which refer to pieces of information, such as browser bookmarks, digital images, and files. Such metadata is designed to describe these pieces of information and help them to be found during the viewing process or through a search query.

It depends on the system, but in general, tags are used without hard rules by the person creating or browsing the data.

Tagging has become popular thanks to the Web 2.0 sites and services. Now it has also become part of some computer programs.

History

Tagging was created as a tool to aid in the processes of classification, identification, the indication of boundaries, and the definition of identity. It can be a word, an image or any other mark.

Just as in a museum we have referencing, help desks, and maps to guide us, so in the IT realm we have tags that carry us through the virtual web. They improve search queries, which in turn significantly make it easier to research information.

In earlier versions of sites, the tags were used by designers to inform the search engines about the content of the pages. Today meta tags are used for these purposes.

Websites that use tags often show a selection of popular tags in tag clouds. Custom tags are equally useful for both users and other site visitors.

Hashtag is a type of metadata, the record of which begins with a # (hash). This type of tag is common in microblogging and social networks - Twitter, Facebook, Google+, and Instagram.

Spam

It has its flaws, however, when it comes to spam. Information is often littered with redundant and superfluous tags.

In the hope of attracting visitors (for example, as in YouTube), people mark information with excessive tags that have nothing in common with the subject of information. In an attempts to overcome this problem, human verification and other statistical methods have been introduced to combat spam posts.

A further solution can be to simply limit the number of tags in a given object.

Additional Terms
Agile Software Development
- an approach to software development focused on the use of iterative development. This involves the dynamic formation of requirements, and ensures their implementation, by constant interaction and transparency within organised groups of various specialists. There are several methods related to the class of agile development methodologies, in particular extreme programming, DSDM, Scrum, FDD. The main ideas People and interaction are more important than processes and tools; A working product is more important than exhaustive documentation; Cooperation with the customer is more important than agreeing on the terms of the contract; Readiness for change is more important than following the original plan. Most agile methodologies are aimed at minimizing risks by bringing development to a series of short cycles called iterations, which usually last two to three weeks. Each iteration looks like a software project in miniature and includes all the tasks necessary to produce a mini-increase in functionality: planning, requirements analysis, design, programming, testing and documentation. Although a single iteration is usually not enough to release a new version of the product, it is supposed that a flexible software project is ready for potential release at the end of each iteration. At this point, the team reassesses the development priorities. Agile methods emphasize direct face-to-face communication. Most agile teams are located in the same office. As a minimum, the team includes "product owners" (the customer or his or her authorized representative who defines the product requirements, which role can be performed by the project manager, business analyst or client). The team should also include testers, interface designers, technical writers and managers. The general concept of the Agile approach is fixed in the Agile Manifesto. The main metric of agile methods is the working product. Preferring direct communication, agile-methods reduce the amount of written documentation in comparison with other methods. Agile implementation leads to the flexibility of the developed software and provide the customer with the valuable, working program in the shortest period of time. It helps to test the business model on the real market and provide the solution as a skeleton working version, adding more and more features and beauty during the next sprints.
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is a sequence of instructions designed to perform specific actions. The algorithm, written in the machine language, with the help of computer facilities, is used to provide solutions to problems. In math and computer science, this is a clear specification of how to solve a class of tasks. This can perform data processing, calculations, and automated reasoning duties. Here are some examples: Search engines - these use special algorithms to collect the information in the internet and display to the user relevant results for a specific query from their search index. In programming, algorithms are commonly written as functions, which perform as small programs that can be used by a larger entity. For example, an image displaying application may include a library of special functions, each using a custom algorithm to render different file formats. The image editing program can contain algorithms designed to process and edit image data. Examples of such, include resizing, sharpening, cropping, blurring, color enhancement, and red-eye reduction. There are many ways to perform an operation in a software program. Developers often try to create the most efficient algorithm, by which programmers can ensure that their programs run fast and use minimal system resources. Of course not all algorithms are perfect for the first time. As a result, programmers improve existing algorithms and incorporate them into future software updates. When you see a new version of an "optimized" or "faster performance" software program, it means the new version includes more polished algorithms. Different definitions of an algorithm contain the following series of general requirements: Discreteness - an algorithm should represent the problem solving process as the sequential execution of some simple steps. At the same time, its each step requires a finite length of time. Determinateness. At each moment of time the next step of the work is uniquely determined by the state of the system. Clearness - an algorithm should include only those commands that are accessible to the executor and are included in its command system. Completeness - in the narrower sense of an algorithm as a mathematical function, with properly specified initial data, the algorithm must complete the work and produce the result in a certain number of steps. Massiveness (universality) - an algorithm should be applicable to different sets of initial data. Effectiveness - completion of an algorithm by certain results.
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API
(application programming interface) is a set of ready-made classes, procedures, functions, structures and constants provided by the application (library, service) or operating system for use in external software products. Programmers use this when writing all kinds of apps, in order to implement data exchange with external software in the most efficient manner. API as a way of app integration API defines the functionality that the program provides. If the program is treated as a control unit, then the API is a set of "knobs" that are available to the user and which he or she can tweak. Software components interact with each other through the API. In this case, components usually form a hierarchy - high-level components use APIs of low-level, and those in turn use APIs of lower-levels. API of operating systems. Problems related to API diversity. Almost all operating systems (UNIX, Windows, OS X, etc.) have an API, with which programmers can create applications for this operating system. The main API of operating systems is a number of system calls. In the software industry, common standard APIs for basic functionality have an important role, since they ensure that all programs that use the common API will work equally well, or at least in the usual way. In case of the GUI API, this means that the programs will have a similar user interface, which facilitates the process of mastering new software products. On the other hand, the differences in the APIs of different operating systems make it very difficult to transfer apps between platforms. However, there are various methods for circumventing this complexity - writing "intermediate" APIs (wxWidgets API API, GTK, etc.), writing libraries that display system calls of one OS to calls of another OS (runtime environments like Wine, cygwin and etc.), the introduction of coding standards in programming languages (for example, the standard C language library), writing of interpreted languages implemented on different platforms (perl, python, php, Java, etc.).
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Additional Terms of Programming
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Artificial neural network (ANN)
Artificial neural network (ANN) is a group of neuron nodes, interconnected with each other. Every circular node works as an artificial neuron that exchanges information with each other, similar to the functional principles of biological neural networks. The whole system is termed ANN. The main advantage of artificial neural network implementation lies in the ability to perform complex mathematical modelling for emulation. This helps scientists to predict different processes and trends based on the visualisation of these models. ANN is a simple system of processors (artificial neuron), in which neurons connect and interact reciprocally with each other. Each neuron periodically receives signals and sends them to others. By connecting to a reasonably large network of similar neurons, these single processors can perform quite complex actions. From the point of view of machine learning, neural networks are special cases of discriminant analysis, pattern recognition and grouping methods. From the mathematical point of view, the learning of neural networks is a multiparameter problem of nonlinear optimization. From the development of computation and programming, neural networks are a way to solve efficient parallel problems. From a cybernetic perspective, neural networks are used for problems of adaptive control and robotic algorithms. From the point of view of artificial intelligence, neural networks are the basis of the philosophy of connectionism and the main direction of the structural methods of using computer algorithms to establish the possibility of natural intelligence. Neural networks are not just programmed, but are also well trained. The possibility of ‘learning’ is one of the main advantages of ANN over traditional algorithms. Stages of problem solving Data collection for training; Selection of network topology; Preparation and normalization of data; Experimental selection of training parameters; Experimental selection of network characteristics; Actually learning; Checking the adequacy of training; Adjustment of parameters, final training; Verbalization of the network for further use. Technically, ‘learning’ is to find the coefficient connection  between neurons. During this process, the neural network is able to detect complex dependencies between data input and output and perform generalization. This means that if training succeeds, the network can return the correct results based on data not provided in training samples and incomplete and / or "noisy" and partially distorted data. So, with the help of the ANN we can predict the most probable event. For the business environment, such operations are vital in the financial, medical, construction and any decision-making field.
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SSL Certificate
(identity certificate, digital certificate) is a set of data, that adds a cryptographic key to the domain’s details and allows secure connections from a server to a browser. When installed on a web server, it activates the https protocol and the padlock to protect the user’s data from public access. Such a certificate is needed, first of all, to protect your personal information, while communicating with banks, payment systems and other organizations working with personal data - to protect transactions and prevent unauthorized access to your banking card details, passwords and other confidential data. When a certificate is installed on your server, HTTP (application protocol) is changed to HTTPs, where the ‘S’ stands for ‘secure’. Depending on the type and the browser you are using, you will see a padlock or green bar when you visit a website with SSL Certificate installed. Usually this contains the following information: the domain name for which the SSL certificate is issued; legal entity that owns it; the physical location of the holder (city, country); validity period; details of the company providing it; This confirms that the domain belongs to a real company and that its owner has the right to use the private key legally. Types of SSL Certificates Domain Validation - these are entry-level certificates, and are the most common in the world. The issuing speed varies from 2 to 10 minutes, depending on the brand. To obtain such a certificate no special documents are required. These are suitable for small sites and projects, when there is no need for a lot of trust from customers and site visitors. You need to confirm ownership of the domain: Verification via e-mail (DCV Email) - the certificate authority sends a verification letter, with a link to confirm domain ownership. Such a letter can be sent either to the email address specified in the Whois of your domain, or to one of the golden five: admin@, administrator@, hostmaster@, postmaster@, webmaster@ of your site; DNS record checking (DNS NAME) is a way for those who have a mail server set up, and Whois mail is closed by private registration. You need to create a special entry in your DNS, and the certification authority will verify it. The method is fully automatic; Verification using a hash file (HTTP CSR Hash) - the user will be provided with a special .txt file that must be uploaded to his server, the certificate authority will confirm it and the certificate will be issued. The method is fully automatic. Business Validation - these certificates are relevant for those who are thinking about trusting their products, companies and services, as the certificate authority performs a more thorough check. It is necessary to send the company documents, go through the process of "calling back" to the corporate phone. SSL certificates with Extended Validation - only EV certificates will provide the site with a green address bar in the browser. Most often, such certificates can be found at banks, online systems with a large number of visitors. SSL certificates with subdomain support (Wildcard) is a very convenient certificate when it comes to protecting a large number of subdomains within one domain. It can protect any number of subdomains on an unlimited number of servers. SAN SSL certificates are single communication certificates that can protect multiple domains, subdomains, local domains and servers. These certificates work with both external and internal domain names. Why does your company need a SSL Certificate Without SSL certificate all the information, including your name, login, password, and even banking card details, is transferred from your computer to a remote source is publically available. SSL certificate is protecting your private data with the help of cryptography, helping you to: Keep secure data exchange between servers Create/enhance the customers’ loyalty Increase the buyers’ trust and conversion rate
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IFTTT (If This Then That)
IFTTT (If This Then That) is an online service ifttt.com for creating automatic actions or “recipes”. Each “recipe” consists of two parts: the event at which the recipe is triggered, and the action that occurs in the case of this event. To implement the automation users do not need to have technical or programming knowledge. There are pre settings for almost everything, which can be realised via user interface. Examples: IF @user on Instagram posted a photo, THEN save the image to Dropbox; IF tomorrow is expected 0 ° C in London, THEN notify me; IF a child is out of school, THEN send me a letter. Over the years of its existence, more than a hundred services and applications have been integrated with IFTTT in which events can be monitored and actions created: Instagram, Feed, Dropbox, Slack, Ebay, Pocket, Blogger, Box, Evernote, Gumroad, Fitbit, Soundcloud and others. When using IFTTT, it is important not to waste energy on “reinventing the wheel”, because there are thousands of ready-made “recipes” in the site collection: Mail IF Gmail receives a new email with an attachment, THEN save this attachment to Dropbox. IF Gmail receives a new email, THEN save it as a note in Evernote. If Gmail received a letter with order confirmation from Amazon, THEN save the letter as a note in Evernote. IF there is a new letter in the Gmail inbox marked as important, then add this letter to the to-do list in Todoist. IF a new photo appeared in my Instagram account, THEN send it to a certain email address. Social Networks IF I like the photo on Instagram, THEN save this photo on Google Drive. IF a new photo is published on my Instagram, THEN post this photo on Twitter. IF profile photo has changed on Facebook, THEN set the same profile photo to Twitter. IF a new photo appeared on my Instagram, THEN add it to my Pinterest board. IF I posted a new link on Facebook, THEN post the same link on Twitter. Other Services IF it’s a certain time, THEN send messages to a certain Slack channel. IF a certain article in Wikipedia is updated, THEN send me a notification about it. IF the parcel has changed its location, THEN mark this event in Google Calendar. IF frost is expected, THEN send me an email stating that I need to cover the plants. All the above mentioned actions can be changed and customised to fit your needs. To do this, add a “recipe” to your profile and click on the pencil icon to open the edit page. For example, in the finished “rule” you can replace Dropbox with Box, Google Calendar with Outlook Calendar, or Evernote with Onenote.
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