Virtual reality (VR) is the computer-generated simulation of a three-dimensional world, which can be experienced by a person through equipement, usually headgear with sensors.
VR simulates a realistic environment, in which actions and responses is performed in real time.
The objects of VR usually behave closely to that of their counterparts in the real world.
The user can act on these objects in accordance with the laws of physics (gravity, water properties, collision with objects, reflection, etc.). However, often for entertainment purposes, users of virtual worlds can go do things that are hitherto not possible in real life (for example: to fly or to rise from the dead.)
Do not confuse virtual reality with augmented reality(AR). Their fundamental difference is that the VR constructs a new artificial world, and AR only brings in individual artificial elements into the perception of the real.
Systems of "virtual reality" are devices that simulate interaction with the virtual environment, by affecting all five of the human senses.
Currently, there are several basic types of systems that provide the formation and output of images in VR systems:
Modern headsets of virtual reality are glasses rather than a helmet, and contain one or more displays that show images for the left and right eyes, a lens system for adjusting the geometry of the image, and a tracking system for the device orientation in space.
Devices of this type include many different gadgets: from some smartphones to rooms of virtual reality (CAVE). Systems of this type form the user's illusion of a three-dimensional object by outputting specially created projections of virtual objects. These are generated on the basis of information about the position of the user's eyes to one or several displays.
Devices of this type form an image directly on an eye retina. As a result, a user sees an image "hanging" in the air in front of him.