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AppStore

AppStore is an application store accessed via iTunes containing various apps for iPhone smartphones, iPod Touch, iPad tablets, and also for Mac personal computers and allowing to buy them or download for free. Similar to Google Play for Android applications.

  • The App Store offers more than 1.5 million apps for iPhone and iPod Touch and about 1 million for the iPad;
  • The number of downloads exceeded 100 billion;
  • The user base is about 575 million.
  • Applications are divided into many categories, including games and social networking apps.

Costs for an App range from $ 0.99 to $ 9.99, and significantly more for professional software. However, most apps are distributed through the App Store for free.

The store is supervised by Apple experts. Each application is equipped with a special electronic certificate. If somebody starts to commit illegal actions with the purchased program, they will remove it from the database, and developers will be "severely reprimanded".

Revenues from sales of apps are distributed as follows - the authors receive 70%, Apple collects 30% of the share in order to maintain the store. Officially, Apple claims that they don’t intend to make money on sales. Developers also have an opportunity to release free apps. It is also interesting that all purchased programs can be registered in iTunes to download all the new updates.

In the iPod Touch, the App Store service works when you connect to the Internet via Wi-Fi. So users can buy and download apps through the wireless network from anywhere. Applications are available either for free or have a certain cost which is charged from the user's account in the iTunes Store.

The App Store will promptly notify the user about the latest updates, which happens regularly. The App Store service is available in iTunes for both Macs and personal computers, wherein apps are synchronized with the iPhone or iPod Touch via a USB interface.

Additional Terms
Framework
is the skeleton of the software system (or subsystem). It includes code libraries, auxiliary programs, programming language and other software that facilitates the programming and integration of various components of a large project. Usually, the union is due to the use of a single API. Examples: web frameworks like PHP frameworks Zend Framework and Symfony, or Django, written in Python. "Framework" differs from the “library” in that the latter can be used in a software product simply as a set of subprograms of similar functionality, without affecting the architecture of the software product and without imposing any restrictions on it. While the "framework" dictates the rules for building the architecture of an app, setting the default behavior at the initial stage of development - the "framework," which will need to be expanded and changed, according to the specified requirements. The Application Framework One of the main advantages of using "frameworks" in applications is that such items speed up the development of the software. Some examples of frameworks are the "standard" solution for printing documents, email processing, which can be integrated in the structure of the app. "Frameworks" became popular with the advent of graphical user interfaces (GUI). One of the first commercial app frameworks was MacApp, written by Apple for Macintosh. Originally created with the help of an extended (object-oriented) version of the language Object Pascal, it was subsequently rewritten to C ++. The examples of application frameworks are: Cocoa for Mac OS X, as well as free frameworks that exist as part of Mozilla, GNOME, OpenOffice.org, and KDE projects. Microsoft had a similar product for Windows, called Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC). At the moment, the main Microsoft product for software development is the .NET Framework. Cross-platform app frameworks (for Macintosh, Linux, and Windows operating systems) are, for example, widget toolkit, wxWidgets, Qt, MyCoRe or FOX toolkit help the developers to create the applications, providing convenient facilities for coding and testing. Together with the updates in the operational system editions, new versions of popular frameworks are developed to support the advanced features of OS. Modern frameworks must be used as a complementary sets for the development. Control of version matching is a part of testers work in quality assurance.  
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Freemium
is a business model that offers the use of software applications, online services, or computer games for free, while an enhanced (improved, premium) version of the product, with advanced functionality, services, or other related features, are offered for an additional fee. In the 1990-2000s, programs distributed under the terms "freemium", as a rule, belonged to the shareware group. Since 2010, "freemium" is regarded as a separate class of software. Usually, a freemium model is used when it is important to attract more potential customers to the project. To implement this strategy, the owner sets the lowest possible entry threshold for using the app. In this case, as a result, the share of paying users is quite small. The ability to pay for the full version without leaving the mobile application, transfers freemium apps to the category of projects that support in-app purchase. Product distribution based on the "freemium" model serves to: Attract a wide range of users; Receive feedback from users; Estimate a demand for a product (service) in the market; Identify people and organizations willing to pay for a product (service) with improved qualities; and others. Most software products provided on the basis of the "freemium" model are limited to: Set of available functions; Amount of free space; Number of licenses; Sphere of usage  (for example, free antivirus only for home use or only for educational institutions). "Free-to-play" is the term used for massive multiplayer online games (MMOG).You can play for free, but make regular small purchases to gain additional features or advanced conditions, improving your playing potential. Most social games are monetized this way; provided that you buy game currency for real money first, and then spend it on virtual items. Mobile application stores like Google Play and the App Store almost profit by the "free-to-play"/"freemium" programs.
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Google Play
(former Android Market) is a Google store that allows Android device owners to install and purchase various applications, games, books, music, and movies. Similar to Apple’s App Store for iOS applications. October 22, 2008, Google announced the opening of an online app store for Android OS - Android Market. App developers for the Android Market receive 70% of the profits, the remaining 30% goes to paying and maintaining billing, as well as taxes, while Google itself does not receive any profit from the sale of applications. Google Play was the result of the Android Market portal rebranding on March 6, 2012. A developer account that allows you to publish applications costs $25. Paid apps can be published only by developers from certain countries. In late July 2017, the Play Market gets the built-in antivirus - Google Play Protect. On Google Play, you can find many applications. There are both paid and free apps. According to the data for September 2017, Google Play contains over 2.9 million Android apps. Users from more than 145 countries can buy applications that have up to 122 localized versions. The number of downloads has reached 83 billion. But at the same time, users complain that the store often contains low-quality programs (about 13%), and malware also occurs. Despite the fact that the number of smartphones on the Android platform exceeds 400 million, Google Play loses the App Store for developer revenues. Users may pay for the content by one of the following payment methods: Credit or debit cards (American Express, MasterCard, Visa, a number of others); Google Wallet (US and UK); Direct mobile operator billing; Gift cards and promotional codes; Since May 2014, users can pay in Google Play with PayPal. The set of payment methods depends on the country and region.
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Additional Terms of App development
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Networking Hardwear
Networking hardware is a set of devices necessary for the operation of a computer network, for example: a router, a switch, a hub, a patch panel, etc.   Active networking hardware is equipment containing electronic circuits receiving power from an electrical network or other sources and performing the functions of amplification, signal transformation, and others.  This means such equipment is able to process the signal by special algorithms. In the networks there is a package data transfer, each data package also contains technical information about its source, purpose, the integrity of information, etc, allowing to deliver the package to its destination. Active networking hardware includes the following types of devices: Network adapter - a card that is installed in the computer and provides its connection to the LAN; Repeater - a device, usually with two ports, designed to repeat the signal in order to increase the length of the network segment; Hub (active hub, multiport repeater) - a device with 4-32 ports, used to connect users to the network; Bridge - a device with 2 ports, usually used to combine several LAN (local area network) workgroups, allows you to filter network traffic by analyzing network (MAC) addresses; Switch - a device with several (4-32) ports, used to combine several LAN working groups (otherwise called multiport bridge); Router (router) - used to combine several  LAN workgroups, allows you to filter network traffic by analyzing network (IP) addresses; Retranslator - to create an advanced wireless network with a larger coverage area and is an alternative to a wired network. By default, the device operates in the signal amplification mode and acts as a relay station that catches the signal from the base network router or access point and transfers it to previously unavailable sites. Media converter - a device, usually with two ports, used to convert the data transfer medium (coaxial-twisted pair, twisted-pair optical fibre); A network transceiver is a device, usually with two ports, commonly used to convert the data format. A transceiver can be mentioned as a Medium Access Unit (MAU) in Ethernet network terminology. Additionally to this set of devices, to become a part of the network, a computer must have a network interface card (NIC). Mentioned above networking hardware can be called a set of computer networking devices or network equipment.  
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API
(application programming interface) is a set of ready-made classes, procedures, functions, structures and constants provided by the application (library, service) or operating system for use in external software products. Programmers use this when writing all kinds of apps, in order to implement data exchange with external software in the most efficient manner. API as a way of app integration API defines the functionality that the program provides. If the program is treated as a control unit, then the API is a set of "knobs" that are available to the user and which he or she can tweak. Software components interact with each other through the API. In this case, components usually form a hierarchy - high-level components use APIs of low-level, and those in turn use APIs of lower-levels. API of operating systems. Problems related to API diversity. Almost all operating systems (UNIX, Windows, OS X, etc.) have an API, with which programmers can create applications for this operating system. The main API of operating systems is a number of system calls. In the software industry, common standard APIs for basic functionality have an important role, since they ensure that all programs that use the common API will work equally well, or at least in the usual way. In case of the GUI API, this means that the programs will have a similar user interface, which facilitates the process of mastering new software products. On the other hand, the differences in the APIs of different operating systems make it very difficult to transfer apps between platforms. However, there are various methods for circumventing this complexity - writing "intermediate" APIs (wxWidgets API API, GTK, etc.), writing libraries that display system calls of one OS to calls of another OS (runtime environments like Wine, cygwin and etc.), the introduction of coding standards in programming languages (for example, the standard C language library), writing of interpreted languages implemented on different platforms (perl, python, php, Java, etc.).
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Material Design
- the design of software and applications for Android operating systems. First introduced at the Google I/O conference on June 25, 2014. Initially, within the company, it was invented under the codename "quantum paper.” The main metaphor of material design is flat paper, located in three-dimensional space. The idea of this design can be seen in applications that open and collapse like cards, using the effects of shadows. According to the idea of Google's designers, apps should not have sharp corners; cards should switch smoothly and almost imperceptibly. Material design in Applications The material design is used fully in the operating systems Android Lollipop, Android Marshmallow, Android Nougat, Android Oreo and also in some apps of previous versions. Why apps need a material design It serves two purposes: the standardisation of numerous products of the company; the unification of app user interfaces for Android. After the dominance of “skeuomorphism,” the web and the interfaces tilted toward a radical flattening, but it turned out to be just one more extreme. In order to be understandable and international, the objects of the interface should have an analogue, a metaphor in the real world. Such a metaphor was paper. Thin, flat, but located in three-dimensional space and having shadows, speed of movement, and acceleration. 4 principles of Material Design Material Design is based on four basic principles: Tactile surfaces. The interface is composed of tangible layers of so-called "digital paper". These layers are located at different heights and cast shadows on each other, which helps users to better understand the anatomy of the interface and the principle of interaction with it. Polygraphic design. If we count the layers as pieces of "digital paper", then, as regards "digital ink" (all that is depicted on "digital paper"), an approach is taken from traditional graphic design: for example, magazine and poster. Meaningful animation. In the real world, objects do not arise from nowhere and do not disappear into anywhere. Therefore, in Material Design, we always think about how to use the animation in layers and in "digital ink" to give users hints about the interface. Adaptive design. It's about how we apply the previous three concepts on different devices with different resolutions and screen sizes. The material design is one of the modern trends in the visualisation of mobile applications whose popularity is growing day by day.
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