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Barcode graphic information applied to the surface, marking or packaging of products, allowing the requisite information to be read via technical means a sequence of black and white stripes or other geometric shapes.

Fields of application

  • Document flow acceleration in banking and other payment systems;
  • Minimisation of data-reading errors due to process automation;
  • Identification of employees (corporate barcode);
  • Organisation of time recording systems;
  • Unification of forms for collecting different types of data (medicine, statistics, etc.);
  • Simplification of warehouse inventory;
  • Control over the availability and promotion of goods in stores, ensuring their safety, etc.

Practical use

Historically, the EAN / UPC code is most commonly used in trading. Originally, the US UPC system was developed, containing 12 digits for the encoding of the product, and it gained such popularity that European countries began paying attention to it. However, an entire range of codes was already being used to encode goods of the USA and Canada, and the firms were exclusively registered in the USA. The developers of the European encoding system EAN-13 faced a serious task to extend the range of codes and organise an independent US registration system, ensuring maximum compatibility with UPC encoding. The solution was to add the thirteenth digit to the leftmost position (it is usually indicated by the Arabic digit to the left of the barcode) using 12 digital templates, just as in the UPC. At the same time, it was possible to maintain the backward compatibility of EAN-13 with the UPC coding – which became a subset of the EAN-13 coding with the first digit 0.

Logical structure

The EAN-13 code, from the point of view of encoding, can be conditionally divided into 5 zones:

  • Prefix of the national organisation GS1 (3 digits);
  • Manufacturer's product registration number (4-6 digits);
  • Product code (3-5 digits);
  • Check digit (1 digit);
  • Additional field (optional barcode field, sometimes there is a ">" sign, "free zone indicator").

How do computer terminals identify different parts of code?

They don’t. It’s not necessary. What matters is the unique code, and it’s this code that’s written entirely within the database of a trading enterprise. The exception to this is codes starting with a deuce, where an enterprise can encrypt its own logic for the product. Barcodes are widely used in the automation of the trade sector, especially with big retailers. All the identity criteria, such as ID, names of the goods and prices, can be programmed to be read by the equipment using the barcode.

Additional Terms
Command Line Interface
Command line interface (CLI) - a kind of textual interface between a person and a computer, in which computer instructions are given mainly by typing text strings (commands) from the keyboard, on UNIX-systems it is possible to use a mouse. Also known as the console user interface. The command-line interface, often mentioned as command-line user interface, is contrasted with the menu-based control systems of the program, as well as to various implementations of the graphic user interface (GUI). The output format of the information in the command-line interface is not regulated; usually, this is a simple text output, but it can also be graphic, audio, etc. Advantages Small memory consumption compared to the menu system. In modern software, there is a large number of commands, many of which are extremely rare. Therefore, even in some programs with a graphical interface, the command line is used: the command set (provided that the user knows this command) is much faster than, for example, navigating through the menu. A natural extension of the command line interface is the batch interface. In essence its a sequence of commands written to a file of ordinary text format, after which the file can be executed in the program, which will lead to the same (in most cases) effect, as if these commands were entered one by one on the command line. Examples - .bat-files in DOS and Windows, shell-scripts in Unix-systems. If the program is fully or almost completely managed by commands from the command line interface, and supports a batch interface, a skilful combination of the command line interface with a graphical interface provides the user with very powerful capabilities. Disadvantages The command-line interface is not user-friendly for those, who have begun familiarizing themselves with the computer with a graphical mode, due to the almost unavailable discoverability. The need to study the syntax of commands and memorize abbreviations is complicated, because each command can have its own designations. Without auto-completion, entering long and special characters from the keyboard can be difficult. No analog input. For example, adjusting the volume with the sounded slider allows you to set the appropriate volume faster than a command like aumix -v 90. Usage Historically, the main areas of application of the command line interface were on computer terminals  in 1960-1980s, for MS-DOS, Unix operational systems and later on on Apple DOS. Now it’s used for chats, computer games and program testing.
Data management
is a set of functions to ensure the required presentation of data, its accumulation, storage, updating, sampling, filtering, and searching, based on given criteria and data output. DMP (data management platform) is a special software that is used for storing, organizing and analyzing data, created for business purposes as a tool for determining necessary sampling.   First-party data - data, the source of which were your own resources - for example, user registration, clickstream. Second-party data - figures, which were collected in the statistical systems, such as: the results of some statistical services, advertising campaign trackers - clicks, views, visits, likes, and shares. Third-party - data, received from a source the recipient does not have any relation to. As a rule, this is information, acquired from data processing and storage services - DMP and Data Exchanges, or from other providers of data-sites, payment services, mailings and many other sources that have information. DMP allows the decision makers in estimations of the historical data fluctuation and creation of the trends and forecasts to make the correct decision. DMP allows the decision makers, who estimate the historical data fluctuations, and create trends and forecasts, to make the correct decision. F.ex., data management system can help media purchases and schedule advertising campaigns through behavioural targeting or audience expansion using look-alike modeling. Look-alike modelling is a search for users similar to those who have already become customers. Data Management Platform assumes complete control over your data, both own (first-party data) and indirect (second-party data). You can easily abandon a bad data provider. With the help of DMP work on data grabbing, storing and analysing becomes easier and much more productive: mathematical modelling of different trends, segmentation of special groups of data and clusterization of data could be done in a couple of clicks.  At the same time, your data is protected both legally and technically (using encrypted connections). How to use DMP in sales and marketing Among the most popular examples of data management technology implementation in the business are - the user behaviour analysis; - potential clients segmentation - and target audience focusing for all kind of advertising. Such an approach as look-alike modelling can help create the most realistic scenario of future business development based on mathematical modelling.
Data mining
is a collective term used to denote a set of methods for the detection within data of previously unknown, non-trivial, practically useful and accessible information, which can then be interpreted as necessary for the purposes of making decisions in various spheres of human activity. The basis of data mining methods comprises all sorts of classification, modelling and forecasting, based on the use of decision trees, artificial neural networks, algorithms, evolutionary programming, associative memory and fuzzy logic. Data mining methods often involve the use of probability and statistical analysis. One of the most important purposes of data mining methods is to visualise the results of calculations, which makes possible the use of data mining tools by people who lack special mathematical skills. Problem Statement Initially, the task is set as follows: A fairly large database exists Some degree of “hidden knowledge” is assumed to exist somewhere within it Methods must be developed for  detecting knowledge buried within significant volumes of raw data. In the current conditions of global competition, it is precisely the patterns that are found (knowledge) that can serve as a source of additional competitive advantage. What does "hidden knowledge" mean? The hidden knowledge is the information, that: Previously unknown – that is, knowledge that must be new (rather than confirming some previously received information); Non-trivial – i.e. that which cannot be simply observed (for direct visual data analysis or for calculating simple statistical characteristics); Practically useful – knowledge that is of value to the researcher or consumer; Accessible for interpretation – knowledge that is easy to present in a user-friendly form and easily explained in terms of the subject area. These requirements largely determine the essence of data mining methods and in what form and according to what ratio data mining technology is used within database management systems, statistical analysis methods and methods of artificial intelligence. Data mining and artificial intelligence The knowledge extracted by data mining methods is usually presented in the form of regularities (patterns) such as: associative rules; decision trees; clusters; mathematical functions. The algorithms for finding such regularities are at the intersection of the following areas: Artificial Intelligence, Mathematical Statistics, Mathematical Programming, Visualisation, OLAP.
Additional Terms of Data management
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Internet of Things (IoT)
Internet of Things (IoT) is a concept of a network of physical objects ("things") equipped with built-in technologies for interaction with each other or with the environment, considering the organisation of such networks as a phenomenon capable of restructuring economic and social processes, excluding from the part of actions and operations the need for human participation. For 2018, the term "Internet of Things" extends not only to cyberphysical systems for "home" use, but also to industrial facilities. Means of identification The involvement in the IoT of objects of the physical world, not necessarily equipped with means of connection to data transmission networks, requires the use of technologies for the identification of these items ("things"), as all techs used for automatic identification can be used as such technologies: optical identifiers barcodes, Data Matrix, QR codes), means of locating in real time. With the comprehensive dissemination of the "Internet of things", it is essential to ensure the uniqueness of object identifiers, which, in turn, requires standardisation. Measuring A special role in the Internet of things is played by measurement tools that ensure the information transformation about the external environment into machine-readable data, and thereby fill the computing environment with meaningful information. A wide range of measuring tools is used, from elementary sensors (for example, temperature, pressure, illumination), consumption meters (such as smart meters) to complex integrated measuring systems. Data transmission The range of possible data transmission technologies covers all possible means of wireless and wired networks. For wireless data transmission, qualities such as efficiency at low speeds, fault tolerance, adaptability, and the possibility of self-organization play a particularly important role in building the "Internet of things". Among wired technologies, PLC solutions - technologies for building data transmission networks over transmission lines play an important role in penetrating the "Internet of things", as many applications have access to power networks (for example, vending machines, ATMs, smart meters, lighting controllers are initially connected to the network power supply).
Operating System (OS)
Operating system (OS) - a set of interrelated programs designed to manage computer resources, such as CPU, memory, file storage, input / output (I / O) devices, user interaction, and network connection. Unlike most programs that terminate after completing the task, the OS continues to run and eventually shut down when the computer is turned off. A modern multiprocessing OS allows the execution of processes, each of which belongs to a "thread" of the calculation used to execute the program. One form of multiprocessing is called timesharing, which allows multiple users to access the computer by quickly switching between them. The most sensitive and important task for modern operating systems is to allocate the CPU; Each process is allowed to use the CPU for a limited period, which can be a fraction of a second, and then it must be terminated and suspended until the next cycle. As it switches between processes, it saves all data. Mobile operating system (mobile OS) - an operating system for smartphones, tablets, PDAs or other mobile devices. Although laptops can be attributed to mobile devices, however, the operating systems commonly used on them are not considered mobile because they were originally developed for large stationary desktop computers that traditionally did not have special "mobile" functions, and did not need them. This difference is blurry in some new operating systems, representing a hybrid of both. Mobile OS combines the functionality of the PC OS with functions for mobile and handheld devices: touch screen, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, GPS navigation, camera, speech recognition, voice recorder, music player, NFC and infrared remote control. Portable mobile devices (for example, smartphones) contain two operating systems: The main software platform for user interaction Low-level proprietary real-time OS. Modern operating systems for mobile devices include Android, iOS, Windows 10 Mobile, and others. Obsolete, now unsupported software platforms: Symbian, Windows Mobile, Palm OS, webOS, BlackBerry OS, Firefox OS, Ubuntu Touch, and others. Functions Execution of program requests (input and output of data, start and stop of other programs, allocation and freeing of additional memory, etc.). Standardized access to peripheral devices (input-output devices). Management of random access memory (RAM) - distribution between processes, organization of virtual memory. Providing a user interface. Saving information about system errors. Additional functions: Parallel or pseudo-parallel execution of tasks (multitasking). Effective allocation of resources of the computing system between processes. Prioritisation of processes and their access to resources. Interaction between processes: data exchange, mutual synchronization. Protection of the system itself, as well as user data and programs from user actions (malicious or ignorant) or software applications. Management of the multi-user access and control of different level of access rights. Special types of software called virtual machines can actually mimic "real" computers and run different operating systems from within them.
Virtual Reality (VR)
Virtual reality (VR) is the computer-generated simulation of a three-dimensional world, which can be experienced by a person through equipement, usually headgear with sensors. VR simulates a realistic environment, in which actions and responses is performed in real time. The objects of VR usually behave closely to that of their counterparts in the real world. The user can act on these objects in accordance with the laws of physics (gravity, water properties, collision with objects, reflection, etc.). However, often for entertainment purposes, users of virtual worlds can go do things that are hitherto not possible in real life (for example: to fly or to rise from the dead.) Do not confuse virtual reality with augmented reality(AR). Their fundamental difference is that the VR constructs a new artificial world, and AR only brings in individual artificial elements into the perception of the real. Implementation Systems of "virtual reality" are devices that simulate interaction with the virtual environment, by affecting all five of the human senses. Currently, there are several basic types of systems that provide the formation and output of images in VR systems: Headset / virtual reality glasses (HMD - display) Modern headsets of virtual reality are glasses rather than a helmet, and contain one or more displays that show images for the left and right eyes, a lens system for adjusting the geometry of the image, and a tracking system for the device orientation in space. MotionParallax3D displays Devices of this type include many different gadgets: from some smartphones to rooms of virtual reality (CAVE). Systems of this type form the user's illusion of a three-dimensional object by outputting specially created projections of virtual objects. These are generated on the basis of information about the position of the user's eyes to one or several displays. Virtual retinal monitor Devices of this type form an image directly on an eye retina. As a result, a user sees an image "hanging" in the air in front of him.
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