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Command Line Interface

Command line interface (CLI) - a kind of textual interface between a person and a computer, in which computer instructions are given mainly by typing text strings (commands) from the keyboard, on UNIX-systems it is possible to use a mouse. Also known as the console user interface.

The command-line interface, often mentioned as command-line user interface, is contrasted with the menu-based control systems of the program, as well as to various implementations of the graphic user interface (GUI).

The output format of the information in the command-line interface is not regulated; usually, this is a simple text output, but it can also be graphic, audio, etc.


  • Small memory consumption compared to the menu system.
  • In modern software, there is a large number of commands, many of which are extremely rare. Therefore, even in some programs with a graphical interface, the command line is used: the command set (provided that the user knows this command) is much faster than, for example, navigating through the menu.
  • A natural extension of the command line interface is the batch interface. In essence its a sequence of commands written to a file of ordinary text format, after which the file can be executed in the program, which will lead to the same (in most cases) effect, as if these commands were entered one by one on the command line. Examples - .bat-files in DOS and Windows, shell-scripts in Unix-systems.

If the program is fully or almost completely managed by commands from the command line interface, and supports a batch interface, a skilful combination of the command line interface with a graphical interface provides the user with very powerful capabilities.


  • The command-line interface is not user-friendly for those, who have begun familiarizing themselves with the computer with a graphical mode, due to the almost unavailable discoverability.
  • The need to study the syntax of commands and memorize abbreviations is complicated, because each command can have its own designations.
  • Without auto-completion, entering long and special characters from the keyboard can be difficult.
  • No analog input. For example, adjusting the volume with the sounded slider allows you to set the appropriate volume faster than a command like aumix -v 90.


Historically, the main areas of application of the command line interface were on computer terminals  in 1960-1980s, for MS-DOS, Unix operational systems and later on on Apple DOS. Now it’s used for chats, computer games and program testing.

Additional Terms
Data Management

Data management is a set of functions to ensure the required presentation of data, its accumulation, storage, updating, sampling, filtering, and searching, based on given criteria and data output.

DMP (data management platform) is a special software that is used for storing, organizing and analyzing data, created for business purposes as a tool for determining necessary sampling.  

  • First-party data - data, the source of which were your own resources - for example, user registration, clickstream.
  • Second-party data - figures, which were collected in the statistical systems, such as: the results of some statistical services, advertising campaign trackers - clicks, views, visits, likes, and shares.
  • Third-party - data, received from a source the recipient does not have any relation to. As a rule, this is information, acquired from data processing and storage services - DMP and Data Exchanges, or from other providers of data-sites, payment services, mailings and many other sources that have information.

DMP allows the decision makers in estimations of the historical data fluctuation and creation of the trends and forecasts to make the correct decision.

DMP allows the decision makers, who estimate the historical data fluctuations, and create trends and forecasts, to make the correct decision.

F.ex., data management system can help media purchases and schedule advertising campaigns through behavioural targeting or audience expansion using look-alike modeling.

Look-alike modelling is a search for users similar to those who have already become customers.

Platform assumes complete control over your data, both own (first-party data) and indirect (second-party data). You can easily abandon a bad data provider. With the help of DMP work on data grabbing, storing and analysing becomes easier and much more productive: mathematical modelling of different trends, segmentation of special groups of data and clusterization of data could be done in a couple of clicks.  At the same time, your data is protected both legally and technically (using encrypted connections).

How to use DMP in sales and marketing

Among the most popular examples of data management technology implementation in the business are

- the user behaviour analysis;

- potential clients segmentation

- and target audience focusing for all kind of advertising.

Such an approach as look-alike modelling can help create the most realistic scenario of future business development based on mathematical modelling.


is a set of data organized in accordance with certain rules and maintained in the computer memory, characterizing the current state of a certain subject area, and used to meet the information needs of users.

There are many definitions of the concept of "database,” reflecting rather the subjective opinion of certain authors, but there is no generally accepted uniform definition. Other examples of database definitions are as follows:

  • A database is a set of permanently stored data used by the application software, or by the individual to structurize massive amount of information.
  • A database is a shared set of logically related data designed to meet the user's information needs.

Database management system (DBMS) - is a set of programs that enables you to keep, extract, and modify information from a database.

There are different types of DBMS, from small systems running on PCs to large systems, which run on mainframes.

Main functions of DBMS

  • Data management in external memory (on disks);
  • Data management in RAM using disk cache;
  • Logging changes, backing up and restoring the database after a failure;
  • Database languages support (data definition and manipulation languages).

A very large database (VLDB) is a database that occupies an extremely large volume on a physical storage device. The term implies the maximum possible volumes of databases, which are determined by the latest achievements in the technologies of physical data storage and software operations.

Classification by degree of distribution

  • Centralized: A database fully supported on one computer.
  • Distributed: Component parts are located in different nodes of the computer network in accordance with some criterion.
  • Heterogeneous distribution: fragments of a distributed database in different nodes of the network are supported by more than one DBMS.
  • Homogeneous distribution: fragments of a distributed database in different nodes of the network are supported by the same DBMS.
  • Fragmented: the method of data distribution is fragmentation, vertical or horizontal.
  • Replicated: the method of distribution is replication.

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Raw data

(also known as primary data) is uninterpreted data from a primary source, having characteristics related to it and that have not been subjected to any processing or other manipulation.

Raw data (also known as primary data) is uninterpreted data from a primary source, which have not been subjected to any processing or other manipulation.

  • The raw data can be entered into a computer program or used in manual procedures, such as the statistical analysis of a survey.
  • It may be the binary data of electronic storage devices such as hard disk drives.

As it is not processed by the computer, it is considered "raw data". To continue the cooking analogy, computer-processed data is sometimes referred to as "cooked data."

In computing, raw data have the following characteristics:

  • May contain human or mechanical errors;
  • May include various formulas (colloquial);
  • Unencrypted and uncoordinated;
  • Anomalies, which require confirmation or citation.

For example, data entry from a sheet may contain dates. The raw data are in many forms: for example,  "31/12/2017", "12/31/17", “31 December 2017", "31 December" Or "today". Capturing these dates requires converting them into a standardized format for easier reading by humans or computers.

  • Data and information are distinguished from information that is the final product of the processed data.

For example, point of sale (POS terminals, cash registers) in a busy supermarket collects huge amounts of raw data every day about customers. The list of groceries and their prices and time and date of purchase do not give much information until they are processed. Once analyzed by the software or even by a human researcher using a pen and calculator, this raw data may indicate certain elements that each group of customers buy and serve as statistics.

Tim Berners-Lee (inventor of the World Wide Web) believes that the exchange of raw data is important for society in accordance with the principle of open knowledge, which means that everyone should have rights to exchange all raw data.

Additional Terms of Data management
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is an application store accessed via iTunes containing various apps for iPhone smartphones, iPod Touch, iPad tablets, and also for Mac personal computers and allowing to buy them or download for free. Similar to Google Play for Android applications.

  • The App Store offers more than 1.5 million apps for iPhone and iPod Touch and about 1 million for the iPad;
  • The number of downloads exceeded 100 billion;
  • The user base is about 575 million.
  • Applications are divided into many categories, including games and social networking apps.

Costs for an App range from $ 0.99 to $ 9.99, and significantly more for professional software. However, most apps are distributed through the App Store for free.

The store is supervised by Apple experts. Each application is equipped with a special electronic certificate. If somebody starts to commit illegal actions with the purchased program, they will remove it from the database, and developers will be "severely reprimanded".

Revenues from sales of apps are distributed as follows - the authors receive 70%, Apple collects 30% of the share in order to maintain the store. Officially, Apple claims that they don’t intend to make money on sales. Developers also have an opportunity to release free apps. It is also interesting that all purchased programs can be registered in iTunes to download all the new updates.

In the iPod Touch, the App Store service works when you connect to the Internet via Wi-Fi. So users can buy and download apps through the wireless network from anywhere. Applications are available either for free or have a certain cost which is charged from the user's account in the iTunes Store.

The App Store will promptly notify the user about the latest updates, which happens regularly. The App Store service is available in iTunes for both Macs and personal computers, wherein apps are synchronized with the iPhone or iPod Touch via a USB interface.

Content Management System (CMS)

Content management system (CMS) - information system or a computer program with simple and convenient user interface, used to provide and organize a joint process of creating, editing and managing content without special programming knowledge.

Main functions

  • Providing tools for creating content, and organizing collaborative work;
  • Content management: storage, version control, compliance with access mode, flow control of documents, etc.;
  • Publishing;
  • The presentation of information in a form convenient for navigation and searching.

The content management system can contain a wide variety of data: documents, films, photographs, phone numbers, scientific data, and so on. Such a system is often used to store, manage, review and publish documentation.

Version control is one of its main advantages when the content is changed by a group of people.


In general, content management systems are divided into:

  • The Enterprise Content Management System (ECMS)
  • Web Content Management System (WCMS)

The term CMS replaced WCMS, becoming a synonym for the website management system.

Such CMS allows you to manage the text and graphic content of a website, providing the user with an interface for working with the content of the site, convenient tools for storing and publishing information, and automating the processes of placing information in databases and issuing it to HTML.

There are many ready-made content management systems, including free ones. They can be divided into three types according to the mode of operation:

  • Generate pages on request. Systems of this type work on the basis of the link "Editing module → Database → Presentation module". The presentation module generates a page with content when it is requested, based on information from the database. The information in the database is modified using the editing module. Pages are newly created by the server at each request, which in turn creates an additional load on the system resources.
  • Generate pages when editing. Systems of this type serve for editing pages that, when making changes to the content of the site, create a set of static pages.
  • The mixed type. As the name implies, it combines the advantages of the previous two. Can be implemented by caching - the presentation module generates the page once, in the future it is loaded several times faster from the cache. The cache can be updated automatically, after a certain time period or when making changes to certain sections of the site, or manually by the administrator's command. Another approach is to save certain information blocks at the stage of editing and build a page from these blocks when the user requests the corresponding page.

Most of the modern CMS are implemented as a visual (WYSIWYG) editor - a program that creates HTML code from a special simplified markup that allows the user to easily format the text.


-  a launch of the program/code/library - ready-to-use product. Usually it is a pre-tested version, ready to run by the end user.

Release Management

The goal of the release management process is to consolidate structures and optimise all changes, as well as reduce the risk of failure when updating the service to a new level.

To achieve this goal, it is necessary to properly allocate available resources.

The process of Release Management consists of three phases:

  1. Development phase: may not always be applicable to an organization, but for some companies this phase may be one of the most fundamental; for example, software development firms or design offices;
  2. Testing phase: at this stage it is necessary to determine the criteria for testing for each release, that is, the degree of determining the release readiness for distribution and implementation;
  3. Phase of distribution and implementation.

The Release Management process exists at every enterprise to some extent. Therefore, the main task of implementing this process is consolidation, structuring, and systematization of all available components, their addition, as well as a description of the procedures for implementing existing versions. This will further develop a number of so-called corporate standards for the composition of software and hardware for installation, which will further significantly simplify the implementation of related processes and reduce the employment of highly skilled professionals.

If the Release Management process is successfully and correctly implemented, users will receive:

  • Control over additional software licenses;
  • Training users and professionals to work in advanced systems, which will improve the quality of interaction with customers, and will be a protective action that promotes the advancement of new technologies;
  • Optimally distributed resources necessary for implementation;
  • Decrease occasion for risk, when making changes in the composition of information technology systems and the services themselves;
  • Optimization of repeated updates by time and cost, through their synchronization and automation;
  • Planned changes;
  • Cost planning for the implementation of certain updates.

There are several other definitions for release, not connected to the IT-industry. In general, the idea of permitting performance, publication, or discharge from obligations can also be termed as ‘release.’

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