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Command Line Interface

Command line interface (CLI) - a kind of textual interface between a person and a computer, in which computer instructions are given mainly by typing text strings (commands) from the keyboard, on UNIX-systems it is possible to use a mouse. Also known as the console user interface.

The command-line interface, often mentioned as command-line user interface, is contrasted with the menu-based control systems of the program, as well as to various implementations of the graphic user interface (GUI).

The output format of the information in the command-line interface is not regulated; usually, this is a simple text output, but it can also be graphic, audio, etc.

Advantages

  • Small memory consumption compared to the menu system.
  • In modern software, there is a large number of commands, many of which are extremely rare. Therefore, even in some programs with a graphical interface, the command line is used: the command set (provided that the user knows this command) is much faster than, for example, navigating through the menu.
  • A natural extension of the command line interface is the batch interface. In essence its a sequence of commands written to a file of ordinary text format, after which the file can be executed in the program, which will lead to the same (in most cases) effect, as if these commands were entered one by one on the command line. Examples - .bat-files in DOS and Windows, shell-scripts in Unix-systems.

If the program is fully or almost completely managed by commands from the command line interface, and supports a batch interface, a skilful combination of the command line interface with a graphical interface provides the user with very powerful capabilities.

Disadvantages

  • The command-line interface is not user-friendly for those, who have begun familiarizing themselves with the computer with a graphical mode, due to the almost unavailable discoverability.
  • The need to study the syntax of commands and memorize abbreviations is complicated, because each command can have its own designations.
  • Without auto-completion, entering long and special characters from the keyboard can be difficult.
  • No analog input. For example, adjusting the volume with the sounded slider allows you to set the appropriate volume faster than a command like aumix -v 90.

Usage

Historically, the main areas of application of the command line interface were on computer terminals  in 1960-1980s, for MS-DOS, Unix operational systems and later on on Apple DOS. Now it’s used for chats, computer games and program testing.

Additional Terms
Barcode
– graphic information applied to the surface, marking or packaging of products, allowing the requisite information to be read via technical means – a sequence of black and white stripes or other geometric shapes. Fields of application Document flow acceleration in banking and other payment systems; Minimisation of data-reading errors due to process automation; Identification of employees (corporate barcode); Organisation of time recording systems; Unification of forms for collecting different types of data (medicine, statistics, etc.); Simplification of warehouse inventory; Control over the availability and promotion of goods in stores, ensuring their safety, etc. Practical use Historically, the EAN / UPC code is most commonly used in trading. Originally, the US UPC system was developed, containing 12 digits for the encoding of the product, and it gained such popularity that European countries began paying attention to it. However, an entire range of codes was already being used to encode goods of the USA and Canada, and the firms were exclusively registered in the USA. The developers of the European encoding system EAN-13 faced a serious task – to extend the range of codes and organise an independent US registration system, ensuring maximum compatibility with UPC encoding. The solution was to add the thirteenth digit to the leftmost position (it is usually indicated by the Arabic digit to the left of the barcode) using 12 digital templates, just as in the UPC. At the same time, it was possible to maintain the backward compatibility of EAN-13 with the UPC coding – which became a subset of the EAN-13 coding with the first digit 0. Logical structure The EAN-13 code, from the point of view of encoding, can be conditionally divided into 5 zones: Prefix of the national organisation GS1 (3 digits); Manufacturer's product registration number (4-6 digits); Product code (3-5 digits); Check digit (1 digit); Additional field (optional barcode field, sometimes there is a ">" sign, "free zone indicator"). How do computer terminals identify different parts of code? They don’t. It’s not necessary. What matters is the unique code, and it’s this code that’s written entirely within the database of a trading enterprise. The exception to this is codes starting with a deuce, where an enterprise can encrypt its own logic for the product. Barcodes are widely used in the automation of the trade sector, especially with big retailers. All the identity criteria, such as ID, names of the goods and prices, can be programmed to be read by the equipment using the barcode.
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Content Management Application (CMA)
Content Management Application (CMA)  - a computer program used to provide a joint process of creating, managing, and editing content. The main functions of the CMA: Provide tools for creating content, organizing collaboration; Manage content: storage, versioning, adherence, document flow management, etc.; Publish content; Show information in a convenient form for navigation and search. A content management application can contain a variety of data: documents, photos, scientific data, phone number, and so on. Such an application is often used to store, review, manage,  and publish documentation. Version control is one of the main advantages when content is accessed by a group of individuals. Kinds of Apps In general, CMAs are divided into: Enterprise Content Management Application(ECMA);   Web Content Management Application (WCMA); Due to the fact that CMA have a deep internal classification by subject areas, the term CMA replaced the WCMS, becoming a synonym for the website management system. Such CMAs allow you to manage textual and graphical content of the site, providing the user with a convenient interface for working with content, handy tools for publishing and storing information, automating the process of placing data in bases and its output in HTML. There are many ready-made solutions for content management, including free ones. All applications available can be divided into 3 types according to the way they work: Generate pages on request. Applications of this type operate on the basis of the principle “Editing module → Database → Presentation module”. When requested, the presentation module generates a page with content, based on the information from the base. Database information is modified by the editing module. Pages are re-created by the server with each request, which creates an additional load on system resources. The load can be repeatedly reduced by using caching tools that are available in modern web servers. Page generation when editing. Systems of this type are used to edit pages that, when making changes to the content of a site, create a set of static pages. With this method, you are sacrificing interactivity between the visitor and the contents of the site. Mixed type. It combines the advantages of the previous types. It can be implemented by the caching principle - the presentation module generates the page once, later it is loaded much faster from the cache. The cache may be updated either automatically, after a certain period of time or when making changes to certain sections of the site, or manually at the command of the administrator. Another approach is to save certain data blocks at the stage of editing a site and to assemble a page from these blocks when a user requests a corresponding page.
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Data management
is a set of functions to ensure the required presentation of data, its accumulation, storage, updating, sampling, filtering, and searching, based on given criteria and data output. DMP (data management platform) is a special software that is used for storing, organizing and analyzing data, created for business purposes as a tool for determining necessary sampling.   First-party data - data, the source of which were your own resources - for example, user registration, clickstream. Second-party data - figures, which were collected in the statistical systems, such as: the results of some statistical services, advertising campaign trackers - clicks, views, visits, likes, and shares. Third-party - data, received from a source the recipient does not have any relation to. As a rule, this is information, acquired from data processing and storage services - DMP and Data Exchanges, or from other providers of data-sites, payment services, mailings and many other sources that have information. DMP allows the decision makers in estimations of the historical data fluctuation and creation of the trends and forecasts to make the correct decision. DMP allows the decision makers, who estimate the historical data fluctuations, and create trends and forecasts, to make the correct decision. F.ex., data management system can help media purchases and schedule advertising campaigns through behavioural targeting or audience expansion using look-alike modeling. Look-alike modelling is a search for users similar to those who have already become customers. Data Management Platform assumes complete control over your data, both own (first-party data) and indirect (second-party data). You can easily abandon a bad data provider. With the help of DMP work on data grabbing, storing and analysing becomes easier and much more productive: mathematical modelling of different trends, segmentation of special groups of data and clusterization of data could be done in a couple of clicks.  At the same time, your data is protected both legally and technically (using encrypted connections). How to use DMP in sales and marketing Among the most popular examples of data management technology implementation in the business are - the user behaviour analysis; - potential clients segmentation - and target audience focusing for all kind of advertising. Such an approach as look-alike modelling can help create the most realistic scenario of future business development based on mathematical modelling.
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Additional Terms of Data management
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Net Promoter Score (NPS)
Net Promoter Score (NPS) is an index that identifies customer loyalty to a product or company and is used to assess readiness for re-purchases. How It Works Measuring the NPS loyalty index involves several steps: Consumers are asked to answer the question “What is the probability that you would recommend a company/product/brand to your friends/acquaintances/colleagues?” On a 10-point scale, where 0 corresponds to the answer “I will not recommend it in any way”, and 10 - “ I will surely recommend. " Based on the estimates obtained, all consumers are divided into 3 groups: 9-10 points - product/brand promoters, 7-8 points - passives, 0-6 points - detractors. Calculation of the NPS index itself. NPS =% supporters -% critics As a result, the the user’s loyalty score calculated on the scale from -100 to 100. If all the customers are willing to recommend the product, the score will be about 90-100, if they are not willing to recommend it - the NPS will drop to -90-100 points.   NPS trade mark was registered for the marketing tool, which automates the calculation of the above mentioned data. History Frederick Reichheld is considered the founder of the method, who first announced the method in the article “One Number You Need to Grow”, published in the Harvard Business Review in December 2003. In 2006, he released a book entitled “The Ultimate Question: Driving Good Profits and True Growth”. He continued his arguments on the loyalty, profitability and growth of the company. In 2010, Reichheld conducted research in more than 400 American companies, where the main task was to measure the influence of customer loyalty (measured by NPS) on its growth rate. The main result was the conclusion that the average NPS by market in the industry was 16%, but for companies such as eBay and Amazon NPS it was 75%. Reichheld does not say that communication is present everywhere: it is absent altogether in monopolistic markets. However, industries such as passenger air travel, insurance, and car rental have become a prime example of interconnection. This is obvious, since these companies are service providers, where customer satisfaction and loyalty depend on the level of customer service. As a result, many companies have become adherents of this technology, including Apple, American Express,  eBay, Amazon, Allianz, P & G, Intuit,, Philips, etc. For certain industries, especially software, it has been proven that detractors often stay with the company while passives leave.  This seems to be a relatively high barrier to trade. Faced with criticism of the promoter's score, proponents of the network promoter's approach stated that the proposed statistical analysis only proved that the "recommendation" problem was similar to other indicators in predictive capacity, but failed to solve the real problem and this is the core of the argument presented by Reichheld. Proponents of the method also argue that third-party data analysis is not as good as analyzing the company in its own set of customers, and the actual benefits of the method (simple communication concepts, short survey, customer follow-up features ) exceed any statistical disadvantage of the approach. They also allow inquiries using any other issues to be used in the net promotion system, as long as it meets the criteria to securely classify customers as promoters, passives and detractors.
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Headless browser
is a web browser, which communicates with the user in the command-line mode, without a traditional graphical interface. Headless browsers can automate the controls of a web page in an environment similar to some popular browsers. They are particularly useful for testing web pages because they correctly interpret HTML, style sheets and JavaScript execution with AJAX - such functions that are not always available during testing. In 2009, Google began using headless browsers to help its search engine index AJAX3 sites. Headless Browsers Use Cases Headless browsers can be used for: Web app tests automation. Web page screenshots. Automated tests for JavaScript libraries. Web scraping to data recovery. Website interaction automation. Malicious Use Cases Headless browsers can also be used to: Perform DDOS attacks against websites. Increase the number of views. Automatically search for sites for fraudulent use, for example, confidential identifiers. List of Headless Browsers Here is a list of browsers offering headless functions: PhantomJS - a headless browser using the WebKit engine for rendering its pages and JavaScriptCore for javascript execution. PhantomJS was originally developed in 2010. HTMLUnit - also headless, written in Java. HTMLUnit uses Rhino for the JavaScript. TrifleJS - a version of the scriptable Internet Explorer browser that uses the Trident rendering engine and the V8 JavaScript engine. TrifleJS uses the same API as PhantomJS and, works by using the WebBrowser object of the .NET WebBrowser framework to control the version of IE installed on the machine. Splash - it has HTTP API, Lua scripting and an IPython IDE. Splash is written in Python and uses the WebKit rendering engine. Weboob - a Python library. Emulated Headless Browser These browsers emulate the environment of a browser Zombie.js. a navigation environment for Node.js20,21. ENVJS. a navigation environment is written in JavaScript for the Rhino engine. While they are able to support common browsing functions (HTML parsing, XHR, cookie support, etc.), they can not render and have limited support for DOM events. They usually run faster than a typical browser, but are unable to correctly interpret many sites.
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Frame
is a unit of digital data transmission in computer and telecommunication networks. In a packet-switched system, a frame is a simple container for a network. In other telecommunication systems, frames are repeating structures that support time division multiplexing. Frame (HTML) - in web-design: the presentation of multiple HTML documents on a separate web page. Frame rate is the number of images displayed on the screen per time unit, usually expressed in FPS (frames per second) Frame (GUI), a box to save other widgets in the graphical user interface A frame typically includes a synchronization feature that has a sequence of bits, ‘or symbols’, indicating the receiver, the received symbol, or the beginning and end of the upload data in the bit stream. If the receiver is connected to the system during transmission, it will ignore the information until it detects a new frame synchronization sequence. Packet switching In the OSI model of a computer network, a frame is a data unit of the link layer. The frame is the result of the last encapsulation layer before the data is transferred by the physical layer. Each frame is separated from the next frame by an interval. It is a series of bits, usually consisting of a frame synchronization, a packet payload, and a frame check sequence. Examples include Point-to-Point Protocol  frames,Fiber Channel frames, Ethernet frames, and V.42 modem frames. Typically, several frames of different sizes are nested within each other. For example, when using the PPP protocol in asynchronous serial communication, the 8 bits of each byte consist of a start bit and a stop bit, and the payload data bytes in the network packet are framed by the header and footer, several packets can be framed with bound bytes. Time division multiplexing In telecommunications, particularly time division multiplexing (TDM) and time division multiple access variants (TDMA), a frame is a cyclically repeated block of data consisting of a fixed number of time slots; each interval is time used for Logical TDM channels or TDMA transmitters. In this context, a framework is usually an entity at the physical layer. Examples of TDM applications are SONET / SDH circuit-switched B channels and ISDN, while TDMA examples are circuit-switched data used in early cellular voice services. This frame is also an entity for time division duplexing, wherein the handset can transmit during certain time slots while receiving other slots.
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