Command line interface (CLI) - a kind of textual interface between a person and a computer, in which computer instructions are given mainly by typing text strings (commands) from the keyboard, on UNIX-systems it is possible to use a mouse. Also known as the console user interface.
The command-line interface, often mentioned as command-line user interface, is contrasted with the menu-based control systems of the program, as well as to various implementations of the graphic user interface (GUI).
The output format of the information in the command-line interface is not regulated; usually, this is a simple text output, but it can also be graphic, audio, etc.
If the program is fully or almost completely managed by commands from the command line interface, and supports a batch interface, a skilful combination of the command line interface with a graphical interface provides the user with very powerful capabilities.
Historically, the main areas of application of the command line interface were on computer terminals in 1960-1980s, for MS-DOS, Unix operational systems and later on on Apple DOS. Now it’s used for chats, computer games and program testing.
Data management is a set of functions to ensure the required presentation of data, its accumulation, storage, updating, sampling, filtering, and searching, based on given criteria and data output.
DMP (data management platform) is a special software that is used for storing, organizing and analyzing data, created for business purposes as a tool for determining necessary sampling.
DMP allows the decision makers in estimations of the historical data fluctuation and creation of the trends and forecasts to make the correct decision.
DMP allows the decision makers, who estimate the historical data fluctuations, and create trends and forecasts, to make the correct decision.
F.ex., data management system can help media purchases and schedule advertising campaigns through behavioural targeting or audience expansion using look-alike modeling.
Look-alike modelling is a search for users similar to those who have already become customers.
Platform assumes complete control over your data, both own (first-party data) and indirect (second-party data). You can easily abandon a bad data provider. With the help of DMP work on data grabbing, storing and analysing becomes easier and much more productive: mathematical modelling of different trends, segmentation of special groups of data and clusterization of data could be done in a couple of clicks. At the same time, your data is protected both legally and technically (using encrypted connections).
Among the most popular examples of data management technology implementation in the business are
- the user behaviour analysis;
- potential clients segmentation
- and target audience focusing for all kind of advertising.
Such an approach as look-alike modelling can help create the most realistic scenario of future business development based on mathematical modelling.
There are many definitions of the concept of "database,” reflecting rather the subjective opinion of certain authors, but there is no generally accepted uniform definition. Other examples of database definitions are as follows:
Database management system (DBMS) - is a set of programs that enables you to keep, extract, and modify information from a database.
There are different types of DBMS, from small systems running on PCs to large systems, which run on mainframes.
A very large database (VLDB) is a database that occupies an extremely large volume on a physical storage device. The term implies the maximum possible volumes of databases, which are determined by the latest achievements in the technologies of physical data storage and software operations.
(also known as primary data) is uninterpreted data from a primary source, having characteristics related to it and that
Raw data (also known as primary data) is uninterpreted data from a primary source, which have not been subjected to any processing or other manipulation.
As it is not processed by the computer, it is considered "raw data". To continue the cooking analogy, computer-processed data is sometimes referred to as "cooked data."
In computing, raw data have the following characteristics:
For example, data entry from a sheet may contain dates. The raw data are in many forms: for example, "31/12/2017", "12/31/17", “31 December 2017", "31 December" Or "today". Capturing these dates requires converting them into a standardized format for easier reading by humans or computers.
Tim Berners-Lee (inventor of the World Wide Web) believes that the exchange of raw data is important for society in accordance with the principle of open knowledge, which means that everyone should have rights to exchange all raw data.
is an application store accessed via iTunes containing various apps for iPhone smartphones, iPod Touch, iPad tablets, and also for Mac personal computers and allowing to buy them or download for free. Similar to Google Play for Android applications.
Costs for an App range from $ 0.99 to $ 9.99, and significantly more for professional software. However, most apps are distributed through the App Store for free.
The store is supervised by Apple experts. Each application is equipped with a special electronic certificate. If somebody starts to commit illegal actions with the purchased program, they will remove it from the database, and developers will be "severely reprimanded".
Revenues from sales of apps are distributed as follows - the authors receive 70%, Apple collects 30% of the share in order to maintain the store. Officially, Apple claims that they don’t intend to make money on sales. Developers also have an opportunity to release free apps. It is also interesting that all purchased programs can be registered in iTunes to download all the new updates.
In the iPod Touch, the App Store service works when you connect to the Internet via Wi-Fi. So users can buy and download apps through the wireless network from anywhere. Applications are available either for free or have a certain cost which is charged from the user's account in the iTunes Store.
The App Store will promptly notify the user about the latest updates, which happens regularly. The App Store service is available in iTunes for both Macs and personal computers, wherein apps are synchronized with the iPhone or iPod Touch via a USB interface.
Content management system (CMS) - information system or a computer program with simple and convenient user interface, used to provide and organize a joint process of creating, editing and managing content without special programming knowledge.
The content management system can contain a wide variety of data: documents, films, photographs, phone numbers, scientific data, and so on. Such a system is often used to store, manage, review and publish documentation.
Version control is one of its main advantages when the content is changed by a group of people.
In general, content management systems are divided into:
The term CMS replaced WCMS, becoming a synonym for the website management system.
Such CMS allows you to manage the text and graphic content of a website, providing the user with an interface for working with the content of the site, convenient tools for storing and publishing information, and automating the processes of placing information in databases and issuing it to HTML.
There are many ready-made content management systems, including free ones. They can be divided into three types according to the mode of operation:
Most of the modern CMS are implemented as a visual (WYSIWYG) editor - a program that creates HTML code from a special simplified markup that allows the user to easily format the text.
- a launch of the program/code/library - ready-to-use product. Usually it is a pre-tested version, ready to run by the end user.
The goal of the release management process is to consolidate structures and optimise all changes, as well as reduce the risk of failure when updating the service to a new level.
To achieve this goal, it is necessary to properly allocate available resources.
The process of Release Management consists of three phases:
The Release Management process exists at every enterprise to some extent. Therefore, the main task of implementing this process is consolidation, structuring, and systematization of all available components, their addition, as well as a description of the procedures for implementing existing versions. This will further develop a number of so-called corporate standards for the composition of software and hardware for installation, which will further significantly simplify the implementation of related processes and reduce the employment of highly skilled professionals.
If the Release Management process is successfully and correctly implemented, users will receive:
There are several other definitions for release, not connected to the IT-industry. In general, the idea of permitting performance, publication, or discharge from obligations can also be termed as ‘release.’