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Content Management System (CMS)

Content management system (CMS) - information system or a computer program with simple and convenient user interface, used to provide and organize a joint process of creating, editing and managing content without special programming knowledge.

Main functions

  • Providing tools for creating content, and organizing collaborative work;
  • Content management: storage, version control, compliance with access mode, flow control of documents, etc.;
  • Publishing;
  • The presentation of information in a form convenient for navigation and searching.

The content management system can contain a wide variety of data: documents, films, photographs, phone numbers, scientific data, and so on. Such a system is often used to store, manage, review and publish documentation.

Version control is one of its main advantages when the content is changed by a group of people.

Types

In general, content management systems are divided into:

  • The Enterprise Content Management System (ECMS)
  • Web Content Management System (WCMS)

The term CMS replaced WCMS, becoming a synonym for the website management system.

Such CMS allows you to manage the text and graphic content of a website, providing the user with an interface for working with the content of the site, convenient tools for storing and publishing information, and automating the processes of placing information in databases and issuing it to HTML.

There are many ready-made content management systems, including free ones. They can be divided into three types according to the mode of operation:

  • Generate pages on request. Systems of this type work on the basis of the link "Editing module → Database → Presentation module". The presentation module generates a page with content when it is requested, based on information from the database. The information in the database is modified using the editing module. Pages are newly created by the server at each request, which in turn creates an additional load on the system resources.
  • Generate pages when editing. Systems of this type serve for editing pages that, when making changes to the content of the site, create a set of static pages.
  • The mixed type. As the name implies, it combines the advantages of the previous two. Can be implemented by caching - the presentation module generates the page once, in the future it is loaded several times faster from the cache. The cache can be updated automatically, after a certain time period or when making changes to certain sections of the site, or manually by the administrator's command. Another approach is to save certain information blocks at the stage of editing and build a page from these blocks when the user requests the corresponding page.

Most of the modern CMS are implemented as a visual (WYSIWYG) editor - a program that creates HTML code from a special simplified markup that allows the user to easily format the text.

Additional Terms
Alpha software
is computer software in the early testing phase. It has basic functions enough to be used, but it is often buggy and lacks features that will be integrated into the final version. Alpha software is often used for internal testing. Internal (Alpha) testing - The stage of testing the program as a whole by testers, usually not developers of the software product, but, as a rule, within the organization or the community developing the product. Also, it can be the stage of adding new functionality, whereby programs can only be used to familiarize themselves with future opportunities. Most often, alpha testing is carried out at an early stage of software development, but in some cases, it can be used for a finished product as an internal acceptance test. Sometimes alpha testing is performed under a debugger or using an integrated development environment that helps to quickly identify the errors found. The detected bugs can be reported to testers for additional investigation in an environment similar to the one in which the program will be used. Typically, alpha testing ends with freezing properties and goes into beta testing.   Beta testing - The stage of active public testing and debugging of the program that passed the alpha testing (if any). Programs of this level can be used by other developers of software for compatibility testing. Nevertheless, the programs of this stage can still contain a large number of errors. Sometimes beta testing is performed in order to get feedback about the product from its future users. Often for free and open source software, the alpha testing phase is characterized by the functional content of the code, and beta testing is the error correction stage. At the same time, as a rule, at each stage of development, intermediate results of work are available to end users.
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Artificial Intelligence
(AI), sometimes referred to as machine intelligence, is the technology of creating intelligent (thinking) computer systems. The basic properties of AI are: language understanding; learning; ability to make decisions and act. AI is associated with using computers to understand human intelligence, but is not limited to biologically plausible methods. This science is connected with psychology, neurophysiology, transhumanism and others. Like all computer science, it uses a mathematical apparatus. Philosophy and robotics are of particular importance.Artificial Intelligence is a top popular scientific area, the foundation to which was laid in 1956. Now it’s growing rapidly, having the evangelists in each progressive enterprise nearly in every country. AI is a complex of related technologies and processes that develop qualitatively and rapidly, for example: natural language processing machine learning expert systems virtual agents (chatbots and virtual helpers) recommendation systems. AI Applications The fields of AI app are quite wide in scope and encompass both familiar technologies and emerging new directions that are far from mass market use, in other words, a whole range of solutions, which span from robotic vacuum cleaners to complex space stations. Artificial Intelligence is not a monolithic subject area. Moreover, some technological directions of AI appear as new sub-sectors of the economy and separate entities, at the same time serving most areas in the economy. The Goal of Artificial Intelligence The traditional goals of AI include  knowledge representation, reasoning, planning, natural language processing,  learning, perception and the ability to manipulate objects. Types of AI Limited Memory AI. Reactive Machines AI. Self-aware AI. Theory of Mind AI. Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI) Artificial Superhuman Intelligence (ASI) More detailed information about these types are available here. AI Perspectives There are two directions for the AI development: To solve the problems associated with the approach of specialized AI systems to human capabilities and their integration, which is realised by human nature. To create an Artificial Mind, representing the integration of already created AI systems into a single system that can solve the problems of mankind. The AI development leads to the adaptation of technologies in classical sectors of the economy, leading to algorithmization of almost the entire functionality of routine operations. Business value of the AI lie in the optimisation and automation of routine processes, which can be implemented via machines in every sphere, from customer support (chatbots and AI adviser) to food processing and construction (3D printers), decreasing the costs and speeding the achievements of results.
>> Bespoke Software
Bespoke software are programs tailor-made to individual customers’ requirements, and are thus wholly unique, as opposed to standard software that is developed and sold to customers as it is (without special features designed to meet particular needs). Bespoke software development is a service delivery, which consists of providing the necessary technical expertise and manpower. Functionalities, delivery schedule and terms of payment are subject to a contract between a service provider and a customer. The customer is heavily involved in the development process and estimates the success of the work. Almost all bespoke systems are application software, the implementation of which demands that the operating system be preloaded onto the user’s PC. The construction of bespoke software has been practised since the 1960s and was initially the only means of obtaining application software. What is in Essence? Standard software often responds to a limited, or insufficient, number of requirements, so bespoke software is usually ordered when there is no equivalent standard software available, i.e. in highly specialised areas. It can also be created in order to bring together disparate products; a common practice with software suites such as ERP and CRM. Bespoke Software Development in Brief Software development is performed gradually in several phases, or milestones: at the end of each phase a client receives a version of the product. Each phase ends with an acceptance testing, whereby he or she verifies that the software is doing what should be expected of it. The software is then tested in many conditions, with real data, possibly accompanied by stress tests designed to make the software fail and see how it rescues itself and returns to normal. Planning in several phases makes it possible to take into account the evolution of the customer's expectations: termination of a phase can inspire the customer, leading them to ask for a more refined product. Payment can be made on an hourly basis – regular payment of the developer's working hours, or fixed price – a fixed price is negotiated at the conclusion of the contract and typically paid in several parts. The fee is between $50 and $300 per hour, depending on the IT vendor. The scope of work required depends on the amount of source code and specifications, and may in some cases exceed a year. In the case of fixed payments, the evolution of the customer's requests may lead to a renegotiation of both the contract and the end cost. Bespoke software is built with special development tools, and the marketing process is very different from that of standard software: the software is considered a project. It is often created from scratch and is therefore not immediately available. The customer is strongly involved in the development work and the geographical proximity between the customer and the supplier counts. The risk of commercial failure is taken by the customer. The acquisition cost is high because it is fully paid by a single client. The ownership of the software and the licence conditions are one of the subjects of the contract signed between the supplier and the customer.
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Additional Terms of Software development
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Artificial neural network (ANN)
Artificial neural network (ANN) is a group of neuron nodes, interconnected with each other. Every circular node works as an artificial neuron that exchanges information with each other, similar to the functional principles of biological neural networks. The whole system is termed ANN. The main advantage of artificial neural network implementation lies in the ability to perform complex mathematical modelling for emulation. This helps scientists to predict different processes and trends based on the visualisation of these models. ANN is a simple system of processors (artificial neuron), in which neurons connect and interact reciprocally with each other. Each neuron periodically receives signals and sends them to others. By connecting to a reasonably large network of similar neurons, these single processors can perform quite complex actions. From the point of view of machine learning, neural networks are special cases of discriminant analysis, pattern recognition and grouping methods. From the mathematical point of view, the learning of neural networks is a multiparameter problem of nonlinear optimization. From the development of computation and programming, neural networks are a way to solve efficient parallel problems. From a cybernetic perspective, neural networks are used for problems of adaptive control and robotic algorithms. From the point of view of artificial intelligence, neural networks are the basis of the philosophy of connectionism and the main direction of the structural methods of using computer algorithms to establish the possibility of natural intelligence. Neural networks are not just programmed, but are also well trained. The possibility of ‘learning’ is one of the main advantages of ANN over traditional algorithms. Stages of problem solving Data collection for training; Selection of network topology; Preparation and normalization of data; Experimental selection of training parameters; Experimental selection of network characteristics; Actually learning; Checking the adequacy of training; Adjustment of parameters, final training; Verbalization of the network for further use. Technically, ‘learning’ is to find the coefficient connection  between neurons. During this process, the neural network is able to detect complex dependencies between data input and output and perform generalization. This means that if training succeeds, the network can return the correct results based on data not provided in training samples and incomplete and / or "noisy" and partially distorted data. So, with the help of the ANN we can predict the most probable event. For the business environment, such operations are vital in the financial, medical, construction and any decision-making field.
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SSL Certificate
(identity certificate, digital certificate) is a set of data, that adds a cryptographic key to the domain’s details and allows secure connections from a server to a browser. When installed on a web server, it activates the https protocol and the padlock to protect the user’s data from public access. Such a certificate is needed, first of all, to protect your personal information, while communicating with banks, payment systems and other organizations working with personal data - to protect transactions and prevent unauthorized access to your banking card details, passwords and other confidential data. When a certificate is installed on your server, HTTP (application protocol) is changed to HTTPs, where the ‘S’ stands for ‘secure’. Depending on the type and the browser you are using, you will see a padlock or green bar when you visit a website with SSL Certificate installed. Usually this contains the following information: the domain name for which the SSL certificate is issued; legal entity that owns it; the physical location of the holder (city, country); validity period; details of the company providing it; This confirms that the domain belongs to a real company and that its owner has the right to use the private key legally. Types of SSL Certificates Domain Validation - these are entry-level certificates, and are the most common in the world. The issuing speed varies from 2 to 10 minutes, depending on the brand. To obtain such a certificate no special documents are required. These are suitable for small sites and projects, when there is no need for a lot of trust from customers and site visitors. You need to confirm ownership of the domain: Verification via e-mail (DCV Email) - the certificate authority sends a verification letter, with a link to confirm domain ownership. Such a letter can be sent either to the email address specified in the Whois of your domain, or to one of the golden five: admin@, administrator@, hostmaster@, postmaster@, webmaster@ of your site; DNS record checking (DNS NAME) is a way for those who have a mail server set up, and Whois mail is closed by private registration. You need to create a special entry in your DNS, and the certification authority will verify it. The method is fully automatic; Verification using a hash file (HTTP CSR Hash) - the user will be provided with a special .txt file that must be uploaded to his server, the certificate authority will confirm it and the certificate will be issued. The method is fully automatic. Business Validation - these certificates are relevant for those who are thinking about trusting their products, companies and services, as the certificate authority performs a more thorough check. It is necessary to send the company documents, go through the process of "calling back" to the corporate phone. SSL certificates with Extended Validation - only EV certificates will provide the site with a green address bar in the browser. Most often, such certificates can be found at banks, online systems with a large number of visitors. SSL certificates with subdomain support (Wildcard) is a very convenient certificate when it comes to protecting a large number of subdomains within one domain. It can protect any number of subdomains on an unlimited number of servers. SAN SSL certificates are single communication certificates that can protect multiple domains, subdomains, local domains and servers. These certificates work with both external and internal domain names. Why does your company need a SSL Certificate Without SSL certificate all the information, including your name, login, password, and even banking card details, is transferred from your computer to a remote source is publically available. SSL certificate is protecting your private data with the help of cryptography, helping you to: Keep secure data exchange between servers Create/enhance the customers’ loyalty Increase the buyers’ trust and conversion rate
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IFTTT (If This Then That)
IFTTT (If This Then That) is an online service ifttt.com for creating automatic actions or “recipes”. Each “recipe” consists of two parts: the event at which the recipe is triggered, and the action that occurs in the case of this event. To implement the automation users do not need to have technical or programming knowledge. There are pre settings for almost everything, which can be realised via user interface. Examples: IF @user on Instagram posted a photo, THEN save the image to Dropbox; IF tomorrow is expected 0 ° C in London, THEN notify me; IF a child is out of school, THEN send me a letter. Over the years of its existence, more than a hundred services and applications have been integrated with IFTTT in which events can be monitored and actions created: Instagram, Feed, Dropbox, Slack, Ebay, Pocket, Blogger, Box, Evernote, Gumroad, Fitbit, Soundcloud and others. When using IFTTT, it is important not to waste energy on “reinventing the wheel”, because there are thousands of ready-made “recipes” in the site collection: Mail IF Gmail receives a new email with an attachment, THEN save this attachment to Dropbox. IF Gmail receives a new email, THEN save it as a note in Evernote. If Gmail received a letter with order confirmation from Amazon, THEN save the letter as a note in Evernote. IF there is a new letter in the Gmail inbox marked as important, then add this letter to the to-do list in Todoist. IF a new photo appeared in my Instagram account, THEN send it to a certain email address. Social Networks IF I like the photo on Instagram, THEN save this photo on Google Drive. IF a new photo is published on my Instagram, THEN post this photo on Twitter. IF profile photo has changed on Facebook, THEN set the same profile photo to Twitter. IF a new photo appeared on my Instagram, THEN add it to my Pinterest board. IF I posted a new link on Facebook, THEN post the same link on Twitter. Other Services IF it’s a certain time, THEN send messages to a certain Slack channel. IF a certain article in Wikipedia is updated, THEN send me a notification about it. IF the parcel has changed its location, THEN mark this event in Google Calendar. IF frost is expected, THEN send me an email stating that I need to cover the plants. All the above mentioned actions can be changed and customised to fit your needs. To do this, add a “recipe” to your profile and click on the pencil icon to open the edit page. For example, in the finished “rule” you can replace Dropbox with Box, Google Calendar with Outlook Calendar, or Evernote with Onenote.
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