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Google Play

Google Play (former Android Market) is a Google store that allows Android device owners to install and purchase various applications, games, books, music, and movies. Similar to Apple’s App Store for iOS applications.

October 22, 2008, Google announced the opening of an online app store for Android OS - Android Market. App developers for the Android Market receive 70% of the profits, the remaining 30% goes to paying and maintaining billing, as well as taxes, while Google itself does not receive any profit from the sale of applications. Google Play was the result of the Android Market portal rebranding on March 6, 2012.

A developer account that allows you to publish applications costs $25. Paid apps can be published only by developers from certain countries.

In late July 2017, the Play Market gets the built-in antivirus - Google Play Protect.

On Google Play, you can find many applications. There are both paid and free apps. According to the data for September 2017, Google Play contains over 2.9 million Android apps. Users from more than 145 countries can buy applications that have up to 122 localized versions.

The number of downloads has reached 83 billion. But at the same time, users complain that the store often contains low-quality programs (about 13%), and malware also occurs. Despite the fact that the number of smartphones on the Android platform exceeds 400 million, Google Play loses the App Store for developer revenues.

Users may pay for the content by one of the following payment methods:

  • Credit or debit cards (American Express, MasterCard, Visa, a number of others);
  • Google Wallet (US and UK);
  • Direct mobile operator billing;
  • Gift cards and promotional codes;

Since May 2014, users can pay in Google Play with PayPal.

The set of payment methods depends on the country and region.

Additional Terms
AppStore
is an application store accessed via iTunes containing various apps for iPhone smartphones, iPod Touch, iPad tablets, and also for Mac personal computers and allowing to buy them or download for free. Similar to Google Play for Android applications. The App Store offers more than 1.5 million apps for iPhone and iPod Touch and about 1 million for the iPad; The number of downloads exceeded 100 billion; The user base is about 575 million. Applications are divided into many categories, including games and social networking apps. Costs for an App range from $ 0.99 to $ 9.99, and significantly more for professional software. However, most apps are distributed through the App Store for free. The store is supervised by Apple experts. Each application is equipped with a special electronic certificate. If somebody starts to commit illegal actions with the purchased program, they will remove it from the database, and developers will be "severely reprimanded". Revenues from sales of apps are distributed as follows - the authors receive 70%, Apple collects 30% of the share in order to maintain the store. Officially, Apple claims that they don’t intend to make money on sales. iPhone app developers also have an opportunity to release free apps. It is also interesting that all purchased programs can be registered in iTunes to download all the new updates. In the iPod Touch, the App Store service works when you connect to the Internet via Wi-Fi. So users can buy and download apps through the wireless network from anywhere. Applications are available either for free or have a certain cost which is charged from the user's account in the iTunes Store. The App Store will promptly notify the user about the latest updates, which happens regularly. The App Store service is available in iTunes for both Macs and personal computers, wherein apps are synchronized with the iPhone or iPod Touch via a USB interface.
>> BYOA (Build your own application)
BYOA (Build your own application) is a fast-growing trend for people who have no programming skills to create software applications via platforms. It works as a constructor, consisting of easy to build features, which can be integrated into semi-customised app. Factors driving the BYOA trend include the consumerization of IT, the growing mobile application market, and the increasing availability of easy-to-use development platforms. Non-technical users can create apps for personal or business use or sell them through application stores. Application development platforms are such websites as BuildAnApp, Podio, and Force.com. In its simplest form, a user-designed program can be an application that replaces a worksheet with a better interface and improved functionality. However, most platforms offer several options to accommodate users of varying skill levels. BYOA also means Bring Your Own Application (sometimes called BYOD = bring your own device), which is the tendency for employees to use third-party apps and cloud services in the workplace. Today it is not so important whether employees use a corporate laptop and smartphone, or they bring their own devices. The working environment is at the discretion of the end user. Starting with instant messengers and ending with office suites, people themselves choose tools that help them cope with work a lot quicker and easier. This changes both business processes within companies and the corporate software market How BYOA Affect the Mobile App Development? While BYOA contributes to the efficient organization of the work environment, both in the office and beyond, developers have to consider every aspect related to the issue of security, as business leaders are becoming increasingly interested in the quality of applications used by their employees. The main feature of BYOA is that a significant amount of data is stored in the cloud. And the corporate data is located next to the personal data of employees on the same device. To a certain extent, this is an inconvenience for companies, since information is no longer contained within the local physical system. And there is an additional requirement for developers - to create sufficiently reliable security protocols that can protect enterprise data against various mobile threats.
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Framework
is the skeleton of the software system (or subsystem). It includes code libraries, auxiliary programs, programming language and other software that facilitates the programming and integration of various components of a large project. Usually, the union is due to the use of a single API. Examples: web frameworks like PHP frameworks Zend Framework and Symfony, or Django, written in Python. "Framework" differs from the “library” in that the latter can be used in a software product simply as a set of subprograms of similar functionality, without affecting the architecture of the software product and without imposing any restrictions on it. While the "framework" dictates the rules for building the architecture of an app, setting the default behavior at the initial stage of development - the "framework," which will need to be expanded and changed, according to the specified requirements. The Application Framework One of the main advantages of using "frameworks" in applications is that such items speed up the development of the software. Some examples of frameworks are the "standard" solution for printing documents, email processing, which can be integrated in the structure of the app. "Frameworks" became popular with the advent of graphical user interfaces (GUI). One of the first commercial app frameworks was MacApp, written by Apple for Macintosh. Originally created with the help of an extended (object-oriented) version of the language Object Pascal, it was subsequently rewritten to C ++. The examples of application frameworks are: Cocoa for Mac OS X, as well as free frameworks that exist as part of Mozilla, GNOME, OpenOffice.org, and KDE projects. Microsoft had a similar product for Windows, called Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC). At the moment, the main Microsoft product for software development is the .NET Framework. Cross-platform app frameworks (for Macintosh, Linux, and Windows operating systems) are, for example, widget toolkit, wxWidgets, Qt, MyCoRe or FOX toolkit help the developers to create the applications, providing convenient facilities for coding and testing. Together with the updates in the operational system editions, new versions of popular frameworks are developed to support the advanced features of OS. Modern frameworks must be used as a complementary sets for the development. Control of version matching is a part of testers work in quality assurance.  
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Additional Terms of App development
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Net Promoter Score (NPS)
Net Promoter Score (NPS) is an index that identifies customer loyalty to a product or company and is used to assess readiness for re-purchases. How It Works Measuring the NPS loyalty index involves several steps: Consumers are asked to answer the question “What is the probability that you would recommend a company/product/brand to your friends/acquaintances/colleagues?” On a 10-point scale, where 0 corresponds to the answer “I will not recommend it in any way”, and 10 - “ I will surely recommend. " Based on the estimates obtained, all consumers are divided into 3 groups: 9-10 points - product/brand promoters, 7-8 points - passives, 0-6 points - detractors. Calculation of the NPS index itself. NPS =% supporters -% critics As a result, the the user’s loyalty score calculated on the scale from -100 to 100. If all the customers are willing to recommend the product, the score will be about 90-100, if they are not willing to recommend it - the NPS will drop to -90-100 points.   NPS trade mark was registered for the marketing tool, which automates the calculation of the above mentioned data. History Frederick Reichheld is considered the founder of the method, who first announced the method in the article “One Number You Need to Grow”, published in the Harvard Business Review in December 2003. In 2006, he released a book entitled “The Ultimate Question: Driving Good Profits and True Growth”. He continued his arguments on the loyalty, profitability and growth of the company. In 2001, Reichheld conducted research in more than 400 American companies, where the main task was to measure the influence of customer loyalty (measured by NPS) on its growth rate. The main result was the conclusion that the average NPS by market in the industry was 16%, but for companies such as eBay and Amazon NPS it was 75%. Reichheld does not say that communication is present everywhere: it is absent altogether in monopolistic markets. However, industries such as passenger air travel, insurance and car rental have become a prime example of interconnection. This is obvious, since these companies are service providers, where customer satisfaction and loyalty depend on the level of customer service. As a result, many companies have become adherents of this technology, including Apple, American Express,  eBay, Amazon, Allianz, P & G, Intuit,, Philips, etc. For certain industries, especially software, it has been proven that Detractors often stay with the company while Passives leave.  This seems to be a relatively high barrier to trade. Faced with criticism of the promoter's score, proponents of the network promoter's approach stated that the proposed statistical analysis only proved that the "recommendation" problem was similar to other indicators in predictive capacity, but failed to solve the real problem and this is the core of the argument presented by Reichheld. Proponents of the method also argue that third-party data analysis is not as good as analyzing the company in its own set of customers, and the actual benefits of the method (simple communication concepts, short survey, customer follow-up features ) exceed any statistical disadvantage of the approach. They also allow inquiries using any other issues to be used in the net promotion system, as long as it meets the criteria to securely classify customers as promoters, passives and detractors.
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5G
is the fifth generation mobile communication technology based on the IMT-2020 standard. The speed of Internet access in the 5G network is predicted at around 10 Gbit/s. 5G reduces the signal delay to one millisecond - against 10 milliseconds on 4G networks and 100 milliseconds in 3G. New generations of mobile communication appear every 10 years. Within this interim, time is spent on the development of technology, standards and infrastructure upgrades. It is expected that the 5G network capacity will be enough to serve more than 1 million devices per 1 km² at an average speed of 100 Mbps. Read more about 5G opportunities for business. Who Deals with 5G Networks in the World Today 5G technologies are used by: research laboratories (for example, the 5G Lab Germany laboratory at the Dresden Technical University); mobile operators (British Vodafone, American Verizon and AT&T, Japanese NTT DoCoMo, Swedish Teliaetc); telecom equipment suppliers Swedish Ericsson, (Chinese Huawei, Finnish Nokia, South Korean Samsung, etc.). 5G Applications These apps and services require significantly higher characteristics of a mobile Internet connection, which cannot be implemented in existing commercial LTE networks. It is expected that 5G networks will allow connecting many devices capable of establishing billions of connections, due to which it will be possible to create new services in: Tactile Internet (transmission of touch), IT and Telecom, automotive industry - self-driving cars, entertainment industry, education, agriculture and many others. Due to the 5G networks, it will also be possible to improve the quality of use of already existing services, where large volumes of traffic are involved. Launch of the World's First 5G Network October 1, 2018 Verizon announced the launch of the world's first commercial network of the fifth generation (5G). The operator has deployed it in four US cities: Sacramento, Houston, Los Angeles, and Indianapolis. The company officially declared Houston resident Clayton Harris "the first customer of the 5G network in the world,” which provides an average speed of 300 Mbit/s, and the maximum of 940 Mbit/s.
>> Node.js
is a server platform for working with JavaScript through the V8 engine. JavaScript performs the action on the client side, and Node let the commands, written on JS to be implemented on the server. With Node, front-end programmers can write full-fledged software applications. Node can call commands from JavaScript code, work with external libraries, and act as a web server. Node Advantages Node is easier to scale. When thousands of users connect to the server at the same time, Node works asynchronously, that is, it sets priorities and allocates resources more intelligently. Java, for example, allocates a separate stream for each connection. Features Asynchronous scripts based on events. All Node.js APIs are asynchronous: non-blocking downloads. In essence, this means that a Node based server never expects data to be returned from the API. After the call, the server proceeds to the next API, and the Node.js events notification mechanism helps the server to get a response from the previous call. Very fast. Being built on the Google Chrome V8 JavaScript browser, the Node.js library runs very quickly in code. Single-threaded but easily scalable - Node.js uses a single-threaded model with an event loop. The Event engine helps the server respond in a non blocking way and provides high scalability, unlike traditional servers that create limited threads for processing requests. Node uses a single-threaded program, and the same program can serve much more requests than traditional servers, such as the Apache HTTP Server. No buffering - Node.js apps do not buffer data. Apps simply output data in parts. Where is Node.js used? Node.js has established itself as an ideal technological solution in the following areas: Input / Output applications Streaming apps Intensive use of data in real time (DIRT) JSON API based applications Node is successfully used by such large companies as eBay,Microsoft, PayPal, General Electric, Uber,  GoDaddy, Wikipins, Yahoo!. Read how we build great apps with Node.js.
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