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iTunes

iTunes is a media player for organizing and playing music and movies, developed by Apple and distributed for free on macOS and Windows platforms.

iTunes provides access to the iTunes Store, allowing users to buy music, movies, iOS apps and books. One of the interesting features of the player is the Genius function, analyzing the user's library and offering songs and movies in the iTunes Store, based on preferences.

All the mobile applications (free and paid) are placed in the iTunes Store for future downloading, evaluating and commenting by the users. Based on the user’s downloading quantities and the feedback, the score of the application is calculated, where 5 stars is the top rate.

iTunes can be synchronized with the iCloud, allowing you to save music, books and applications in it.

iTunes is compatible with all existing iPod, iPhone, iPad and Apple TV models. The player can be used for streaming media (including HDTV format) and creating a home collection, including both audio and video files, and photos.

Functions

  • Navigation in the multimedia library,  search lettering, data presentation in a list of songs or albums, grids, Cover Flow.
  • Organization of multimedia library, creation of playlists, smart playlists, folders.
  • Genius - an iTunes Store service that creates playlists and mixes from matching songs and gives recommendations based on songs in the iTunes library.
  • Editing of songs metadata, such as "author", "composer", "cover", etc.
  • Recording and importing tracks from CDs.
  • Playing music, movies, podcasts, multi-band equalizer, visualizer, mini-player mode.
  • Internet radio.
  • Buying tracks in a branded online store.
  • Sync with iPod, iPhone, iPad and Apple TV.
  • Sharing - allows users to open access to the library and listen to music from other libraries on the local network using the DAAP protocol.

Music

By default, iTunes uses AAC music, 256 kbps. It is in this format that all the songs purchased through the iTunes Store go. However, the built-in encoder can also be set to MP3. In this case, for example, songs from CDs can be saved in the MP3, AAC, Apple Lossless, AIFF, WAV formats. The Ogg Vorbis file format is optionally supported, the XiphQT codec can be installed by downloading it from the Xiph.Org website.

Until December 2008, music purchased in the iTunes Store had a built-in security mechanism and could not be recoded into other formats by regular means. But in December 2009, Apple announced the standard iTunes Plus, which removed the copy protection and increased the quality of songs. At the moment, all 6 million tracks in the iTunes Store are converted to iTunes Plus format. Users who previously purchased songs with protection can transfer them to the iTunes Plus format for free.

In 2014, Apple launched a new feature in iTunes AppleMusic. The first three months of subscription are free.

Additional Terms
AppStore
is an application store accessed via iTunes containing various apps for iPhone smartphones, iPod Touch, iPad tablets, and also for Mac personal computers and allowing to buy them or download for free. Similar to Google Play for Android applications. The App Store offers more than 1.5 million apps for iPhone and iPod Touch and about 1 million for the iPad; The number of downloads exceeded 100 billion; The user base is about 575 million. Applications are divided into many categories, including games and social networking apps. Costs for an App range from $ 0.99 to $ 9.99, and significantly more for professional software. However, most apps are distributed through the App Store for free. The store is supervised by Apple experts. Each application is equipped with a special electronic certificate. If somebody starts to commit illegal actions with the purchased program, they will remove it from the database, and developers will be "severely reprimanded". Revenues from sales of apps are distributed as follows - the authors receive 70%, Apple collects 30% of the share in order to maintain the store. Officially, Apple claims that they don’t intend to make money on sales. iPhone app developers also have an opportunity to release free apps. It is also interesting that all purchased programs can be registered in iTunes to download all the new updates. In the iPod Touch, the App Store service works when you connect to the Internet via Wi-Fi. So users can buy and download apps through the wireless network from anywhere. Applications are available either for free or have a certain cost which is charged from the user's account in the iTunes Store. The App Store will promptly notify the user about the latest updates, which happens regularly. The App Store service is available in iTunes for both Macs and personal computers, wherein apps are synchronized with the iPhone or iPod Touch via a USB interface.
>> BYOA (Build your own application)
BYOA (Build your own application) is a fast-growing trend for people who have no programming skills to create software applications via platforms. It works as a constructor, consisting of easy to build features, which can be integrated into semi-customised app. Factors driving the BYOA trend include the consumerization of IT, the growing mobile application market, and the increasing availability of easy-to-use development platforms. Non-technical users can create apps for personal or business use or sell them through application stores. Application development platforms are such websites as BuildAnApp, Podio, and Force.com. In its simplest form, a user-designed program can be an application that replaces a worksheet with a better interface and improved functionality. However, most platforms offer several options to accommodate users of varying skill levels. BYOA also means Bring Your Own Application (sometimes called BYOD = bring your own device), which is the tendency for employees to use third-party apps and cloud services in the workplace. Today it is not so important whether employees use a corporate laptop and smartphone, or they bring their own devices. The working environment is at the discretion of the end user. Starting with instant messengers and ending with office suites, people themselves choose tools that help them cope with work a lot quicker and easier. This changes both business processes within companies and the corporate software market How BYOA Affect the Mobile App Development? While BYOA contributes to the efficient organization of the work environment, both in the office and beyond, developers have to consider every aspect related to the issue of security, as business leaders are becoming increasingly interested in the quality of applications used by their employees. The main feature of BYOA is that a significant amount of data is stored in the cloud. And the corporate data is located next to the personal data of employees on the same device. To a certain extent, this is an inconvenience for companies, since information is no longer contained within the local physical system. And there is an additional requirement for developers - to create sufficiently reliable security protocols that can protect enterprise data against various mobile threats.
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Framework
is the skeleton of the software system (or subsystem). It includes code libraries, auxiliary programs, programming language and other software that facilitates the programming and integration of various components of a large project. Usually, the union is due to the use of a single API. Examples: web frameworks like PHP frameworks Zend Framework and Symfony, or Django, written in Python. "Framework" differs from the “library” in that the latter can be used in a software product simply as a set of subprograms of similar functionality, without affecting the architecture of the software product and without imposing any restrictions on it. While the "framework" dictates the rules for building the architecture of an app, setting the default behavior at the initial stage of development - the "framework," which will need to be expanded and changed, according to the specified requirements. The Application Framework One of the main advantages of using "frameworks" in applications is that such items speed up the development of the software. Some examples of frameworks are the "standard" solution for printing documents, email processing, which can be integrated in the structure of the app. "Frameworks" became popular with the advent of graphical user interfaces (GUI). One of the first commercial app frameworks was MacApp, written by Apple for Macintosh. Originally created with the help of an extended (object-oriented) version of the language Object Pascal, it was subsequently rewritten to C ++. The examples of application frameworks are: Cocoa for Mac OS X, as well as free frameworks that exist as part of Mozilla, GNOME, OpenOffice.org, and KDE projects. Microsoft had a similar product for Windows, called Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC). At the moment, the main Microsoft product for software development is the .NET Framework. Cross-platform app frameworks (for Macintosh, Linux, and Windows operating systems) are, for example, widget toolkit, wxWidgets, Qt, MyCoRe or FOX toolkit help the developers to create the applications, providing convenient facilities for coding and testing. Together with the updates in the operational system editions, new versions of popular frameworks are developed to support the advanced features of OS. Modern frameworks must be used as a complementary sets for the development. Control of version matching is a part of testers work in quality assurance.  
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Additional Terms of App development
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.Net Framework
The .NET Framework is a software platform released by Microsoft in 2002. The platform is based on the Common Language Runtime (CLR), which is suitable for different programming languages. The CLR functionality is available in any programming language using this environment. The main idea in developing the .NET framework was to ensure developer freedom by allowing to create applications of various types that can run on different devices and in various environments. Main features The .NET framework provides a powerful platform for building apps. Its main features include: Multi-language support. The platform is based on the Common Language Runtime (CLR), thanks to which .NET supports several languages: along with C #, VB.NET, C ++, F #, and various dialects of other languages associated with .NET, such as Delphi. NET. During the process of compiling, the code in any of these languages is assembled in a common language CIL (Common Intermediate Language) - a kind of assembler of the .NET platform. Therefore, we can make separate modules of one application in separate semantics. Cross platform .NET is a portable platform (with some restrictions). For example, the latest version of the platform at the moment. NET Framework is supported on most modern Windows OS (Windows 10 / 8.1 / 8/7 / Vista). And thanks to the Mono project, you can create apps that will work on other Linux operating systems, including Android and iOS mobile platforms. Powerful class library. .NET provides a single class library for all supported languages. And whatever application we want to write on C # - a text editor, a chat, or a complex website - one way or another, we will use the .NET class library. A variety of technologies. The common language runtime and the base class library are the basis for a whole stack of technologies that developers can use to build certain applications. For example, ADO.NET technology is designed to work with databases in this technology stack. For building graphical applications with rich interface - WPF technology. For creating websites - ASP.NET, etc. Another noteworthy feature of the .NET framework is automatic garbage collection. And this means that in most cases programmers don’t have to worry about free memory. This CLR itself will call the garbage collector and clear the memory.
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AJAX
is an abbreviation of Asynchronous Javascript and XML. This is a technology to access the server without reloading the page. Which means pressure decrease  on the data transmitting channels. Due to this, response time is reduced and a web app interacts more like a desktop one. Despite the fact that the name of the technology contains the letter X (from the word XML), it is not necessary to use XML. By AJAX, we mean any communication with the server without reloading the page, organized using JavaScript. AJAX Advantages Ability to create a convenient web-interface Active user interaction Partial page reload, instead of full The convenience of use AJAX uses two methods of working with a web page: changing it without reloading it, and dynamically accessing the server. What can we do with AJAX? Interface elements First of all, AJAX is useful for forms and buttons associated with elementary actions: add to cart, subscribe, fulfil some data in the contact form, etc. Such actions on the sites are carried out without reloading the page. Live Search Live search is a classic AJAX use case, adopted by modern search engines. A user starts typing a search phrase, and JavaScript offers possible options, getting a list of the most likely additions from the server. How the System Works AJAX technology includes the following steps: A user accesses AJAX; most often this happens by pressing a button, requesting to learn more detailed information. The service forwards the request to the server along with the associated data. For example, you may need to download some file or specific information from the database. After receiving the response from the database, the server sends it to the browser. JavaScript receives the response, decrypts and shows it to the user. An XMLHttpRequest object is created for data exchange; it performs an intermediary function between the server and the browser. There are two types of requests - GET and POST. GET refers to a document on the server, the web resource’s URL is provided as an argument. You can use the JavaScript Escape feature to ensure query continuity. POST is used for large amounts of data and provide better security level. With POST the user’s data is transferred in the cryptographed way, with GET request all information, including the personal name and passwords, is transferred openly, directly in the body of the request code.
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Graphic Design
Graphic design is a process aimed at creating visual graphics for the problem-solving through the use of illustration, typography, and photography. As a discipline graphic design in part focuses on visual communication and presentation. A designer can work with visual arts, typographic design, and page layout techniques. Sections Graphic design can be classified by types of tasks: Calligraphy, fonts, book design. Corporate identity, including brand names and logos. Visual communications, including orientation systems (navigation and other icons). Poster products, including advertising posters. Visual solutions for product packaging, including confectionery and food. The visual style of TV programs and other media products. This is becoming an increasingly integrating profession that unites the methods and principles of various professional disciplines in working with the complex, multi-level subject of visual reality. In addition to the visual text, image, space, graphic design can master other features, such as time, motion, and interactivity. Furthermore it can operate with more diverse means of marketing, economic, and cultural communications. Professional Software for Graphic Design For offset printing: Adobe Photoshop, Gimp (work with raster images), Adobe Illustrator, Inkscape (work with vector images), QuarkXPress and  Adobe InDesign (page layout). For outdoor advertising and screen printing: Corel Draw. Basic Graphic Design Products Graphic design is one of the trends, helping in creation awesome products. For example, product packaging may include organized text,  a logo or other image, and clean design elements, such as color and shapes, that contribute to the overall perception of the picture. Composition is one of the most important graphic design properties, especially when using preliminary materials or other elements. websites book layouts and illustrations advertising and informational posters graphic solution of postcards and postage stamps records and DVDs corporate style and its main element - the logo Brochures, booklets,  calendars and other advertising products souvenir products Advantages of images, implemented via graphic design technic: Low file storage volume  as a result - quick downloading time; Flexibility of usage in adaptive web and mobile interfaces; Great scalability: convenient customisation. Common use of graphic design includes advertising, magazines, packaging, and web.
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