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Keyword

Keyword is a word in the text that gives a concise description of the content of a text document, which allows user to better identify its subject matter.

Keywords in the Web are used mainly for searching and are the main way to organize content.

Keywords in Text Analysis

Key words in text analysis, (including when building an index in search engines), are especially important and representative of a particular nature of words in a text, the set of which can give a high-level description of its content for the reader. Key words (KW) are characterized by the following traits:

  • Frequency - the most common denote the feature of the object, state or effect;
  • Represented by significant vocabulary, sufficiently generalized in their semantics, degree of abstraction, and style.
  • Interrelation - connected with each other by a network of semantic links, intersections of meanings;
  • If the KWs are repeated too often in the text, the search engines may regard this as spam and not promote the given page.
  • The KW set defines the index of words, their frequency, and predictability.

Keyword in the markup of web pages

In HTML, to specify keywords, there are meta elements with the respective keywords. This way of specifying keywords opens up even more opportunities for abuse. As a result, only some search engines use this metatag as a factor to improve the ranking of the pages, while others don’t. Historically, this aspect was overused in SEO and is now ignored by the leading search engines, like Google.

For example, Google often ignores the keywords in the tag, because of too much abuse in the past. However, they are used by other user agents (for example, web browsers for searching bookmarks).

In XHTML microformats, the keywords describing the document are presented as a list of links, each of which should lead to a page containing a list of documents that also has this keyword. Thus, the possibility of abuse is somewhat reduced, since each link should lead to real content. For such keywords, the term "tags" are more often used, and at the code level they are implemented using the micro-format tag-rel.

Additional Terms
Metadata
discloses information about the characteristics and properties that describe any entities that allow to automatically search and manage them in large information flows. The Difference Between Data and Metadata It is usually impossible to make an unambiguous division into data and metadata in a document because: Something can be both data and metadata. Thus, the title of an article can be simultaneously referred to as metadata (as a metadata element - the title), and to the actual data (since the title is part of the text itself). According to the usual definition, metadata is a set of structured information. You can create metadata for metadata, for output to special devices, or read their descriptions using text-to-speech software. Classification of metadata Metadata can be classified by The content. Metadata can either describe the resource itself (for example, the name and size of the file), or the content of the resource (for example, "this video shows how to play football"). The resource as a whole. Metadata can refer to a resource as a whole or to parts of it. For example, "Title" (movie name) refers to the movie, and "Scene description" (the description of the movie episode) is separate for each episode of the film. Logical inference. Metadata can be divided into three layers: the bottom layer is raw data; middle layer - metadata describing the specified "raw" data; and the top layer is metadata, which allows you to make a logical conclusion using the second layer. The three most commonly used metadata classes are: Internal metadata, which describes the structure or constituent parts of a thing. For example, the format and size of the file. Administrative metadata required for information processing. Such as, information about the author, the editor, the date of publication, etc. Descriptive metadata that describe the nature of a thing, its attributes. For example, a set of information-related categories, links to other subjects related to the the item in question. In search engine optimisation SEO-experts concentrate on the concrete part of metadata - HTML-tags: <title>,< description>,< h1>,< keyword>.  It’s the particular examples of metadata.
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Snippet
is a fragment of the page text or of a program code used in search engines, text editors and integrated development environments. Snippet management - the functionality of some code editors and development environments. It allows the user to save snippets for later use in the code development process in this editor. Search Engine Snippets The term snippet refers to small part of text from a search engine's site page used as a description of a link in search results. Typically, they contain the context in which the keyword appears in the text on the page. Text from the meta tag "Description" can be outputted as a snippet, if it’s relevant to the user’s request, otherwise any part of the page, relevant to the user’s query, can be used by SE to form the snippet. For more information, see search engine results page. After viewing the snippet, a user can understand whether the page matches the request, even without opening the page itself. Snippets in text editors The control function of snippets in text editors is popular among software developers and those who constantly need to enter a repeating text. This need is explained by the fact that the text fragment being entered does not change, or changes very little. Text editors that include such functionality usually have a mechanism that allows you to manage a set of snippets in a similar way to how editors or operating systems allow you to manage documents or files. This mechanism includes operations such as viewing, modifying, adding, deleting, filtering, sorting, grouping and renaming snippets in a repository, directory or database. Snippets in development environments Here a snippet is a small piece of source code or text, suitable for reuse. Snippets are not a substitute for procedures, functions, or other similar notions of structured coding. They are usually used to easily read code functions that, without using them, look too overloaded with details, or to eliminate the repetition of the same common parts of the code.
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Additional Terms of SEO
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Networking Hardwear
Networking hardware is a set of devices necessary for the operation of a computer network, for example: a router, a switch, a hub, a patch panel, etc.   Active networking hardware is equipment containing electronic circuits receiving power from an electrical network or other sources and performing the functions of amplification, signal transformation, and others.  This means such equipment is able to process the signal by special algorithms. In the networks there is a package data transfer, each data package also contains technical information about its source, purpose, the integrity of information, etc, allowing to deliver the package to its destination. Active networking hardware includes the following types of devices: Network adapter - a card that is installed in the computer and provides its connection to the LAN; Repeater - a device, usually with two ports, designed to repeat the signal in order to increase the length of the network segment; Hub (active hub, multiport repeater) - a device with 4-32 ports, used to connect users to the network; Bridge - a device with 2 ports, usually used to combine several LAN (local area network) workgroups, allows you to filter network traffic by analyzing network (MAC) addresses; Switch - a device with several (4-32) ports, used to combine several LAN working groups (otherwise called multiport bridge); Router (router) - used to combine several  LAN workgroups, allows you to filter network traffic by analyzing network (IP) addresses; Retranslator - to create an advanced wireless network with a larger coverage area and is an alternative to a wired network. By default, the device operates in the signal amplification mode and acts as a relay station that catches the signal from the base network router or access point and transfers it to previously unavailable sites. Media converter - a device, usually with two ports, used to convert the data transfer medium (coaxial-twisted pair, twisted-pair optical fibre); A network transceiver is a device, usually with two ports, commonly used to convert the data format. A transceiver can be mentioned as a Medium Access Unit (MAU) in Ethernet network terminology. Additionally to this set of devices, to become a part of the network, a computer must have a network interface card (NIC). Mentioned above networking hardware can be called a set of computer networking devices or network equipment.  
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API
(application programming interface) is a set of ready-made classes, procedures, functions, structures and constants provided by the application (library, service) or operating system for use in external software products. Programmers use this when writing all kinds of apps, in order to implement data exchange with external software in the most efficient manner. API as a way of app integration API defines the functionality that the program provides. If the program is treated as a control unit, then the API is a set of "knobs" that are available to the user and which he or she can tweak. Software components interact with each other through the API. In this case, components usually form a hierarchy - high-level components use APIs of low-level, and those in turn use APIs of lower-levels. API of operating systems. Problems related to API diversity. Almost all operating systems (UNIX, Windows, OS X, etc.) have an API, with which programmers can create applications for this operating system. The main API of operating systems is a number of system calls. In the software industry, common standard APIs for basic functionality have an important role, since they ensure that all programs that use the common API will work equally well, or at least in the usual way. In case of the GUI API, this means that the programs will have a similar user interface, which facilitates the process of mastering new software products. On the other hand, the differences in the APIs of different operating systems make it very difficult to transfer apps between platforms. However, there are various methods for circumventing this complexity - writing "intermediate" APIs (wxWidgets API API, GTK, etc.), writing libraries that display system calls of one OS to calls of another OS (runtime environments like Wine, cygwin and etc.), the introduction of coding standards in programming languages (for example, the standard C language library), writing of interpreted languages implemented on different platforms (perl, python, php, Java, etc.).
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Material Design
- the design of software and applications for Android operating systems. First introduced at the Google I/O conference on June 25, 2014. Initially, within the company, it was invented under the codename "quantum paper.” The main metaphor of material design is flat paper, located in three-dimensional space. The idea of this design can be seen in applications that open and collapse like cards, using the effects of shadows. According to the idea of Google's designers, apps should not have sharp corners; cards should switch smoothly and almost imperceptibly. Material design in Applications The material design is used fully in the operating systems Android Lollipop, Android Marshmallow, Android Nougat, Android Oreo and also in some apps of previous versions. Why apps need a material design It serves two purposes: the standardisation of numerous products of the company; the unification of app user interfaces for Android. After the dominance of “skeuomorphism,” the web and the interfaces tilted toward a radical flattening, but it turned out to be just one more extreme. In order to be understandable and international, the objects of the interface should have an analogue, a metaphor in the real world. Such a metaphor was paper. Thin, flat, but located in three-dimensional space and having shadows, speed of movement, and acceleration. 4 principles of Material Design Material Design is based on four basic principles: Tactile surfaces. The interface is composed of tangible layers of so-called "digital paper". These layers are located at different heights and cast shadows on each other, which helps users to better understand the anatomy of the interface and the principle of interaction with it. Polygraphic design. If we count the layers as pieces of "digital paper", then, as regards "digital ink" (all that is depicted on "digital paper"), an approach is taken from traditional graphic design: for example, magazine and poster. Meaningful animation. In the real world, objects do not arise from nowhere and do not disappear into anywhere. Therefore, in Material Design, we always think about how to use the animation in layers and in "digital ink" to give users hints about the interface. Adaptive design. It's about how we apply the previous three concepts on different devices with different resolutions and screen sizes. The material design is one of the modern trends in the visualisation of mobile applications whose popularity is growing day by day.
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