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Keyword

Keyword is a word in the text that gives a concise description of the content of a text document, which allows user to better identify its subject matter.

Keywords in the Web are used mainly for searching and are the main way to organize content.

Keywords in Text Analysis

Key words in text analysis, (including when building an index in search engines), are especially important and representative of a particular nature of words in a text, the set of which can give a high-level description of its content for the reader. Key words (KW) are characterized by the following traits:

  • Frequency - the most common denote the feature of the object, state or effect;
  • Represented by significant vocabulary, sufficiently generalized in their semantics, degree of abstraction, and style.
  • Interrelation - connected with each other by a network of semantic links, intersections of meanings;
  • If the KWs are repeated too often in the text, the search engines may regard this as spam and not promote the given page.
  • The KW set defines the index of words, their frequency, and predictability.

Keyword in the markup of web pages

In HTML, to specify keywords, there are meta elements with the respective keywords. This way of specifying keywords opens up even more opportunities for abuse. As a result, only some search engines use this metatag as a factor to improve the ranking of the pages, while others don’t. Historically, this aspect was overused in SEO and is now ignored by the leading search engines, like Google.

For example, Google often ignores the keywords in the tag, because of too much abuse in the past. However, they are used by other user agents (for example, web browsers for searching bookmarks).

In XHTML microformats, the keywords describing the document are presented as a list of links, each of which should lead to a page containing a list of documents that also has this keyword. Thus, the possibility of abuse is somewhat reduced, since each link should lead to real content. For such keywords, the term "tags" are more often used, and at the code level they are implemented using the micro-format tag-rel.

Additional Terms
Metadata
discloses information about the characteristics and properties that describe any entities that allow to automatically search and manage them in large information flows. The Difference Between Data and Metadata It is usually impossible to make an unambiguous division into data and metadata in a document because: Something can be both data and metadata. Thus, the title of an article can be simultaneously referred to as metadata (as a metadata element - the title), and to the actual data (since the title is part of the text itself). According to the usual definition, metadata is a set of structured information. You can create metadata for metadata, for output to special devices, or read their descriptions using text-to-speech software. Classification of metadata Metadata can be classified by The content. Metadata can either describe the resource itself (for example, the name and size of the file), or the content of the resource (for example, "this video shows how to play football"). The resource as a whole. Metadata can refer to a resource as a whole or to parts of it. For example, "Title" (movie name) refers to the movie, and "Scene description" (the description of the movie episode) is separate for each episode of the film. Logical inference. Metadata can be divided into three layers: the bottom layer is raw data; middle layer - metadata describing the specified "raw" data; and the top layer is metadata, which allows you to make a logical conclusion using the second layer. The three most commonly used metadata classes are: Internal metadata, which describes the structure or constituent parts of a thing. For example, the format and size of the file. Administrative metadata required for information processing. Such as, information about the author, the editor, the date of publication, etc. Descriptive metadata that describe the nature of a thing, its attributes. For example, a set of information-related categories, links to other subjects related to the the item in question. In search engine optimisation SEO-experts concentrate on the concrete part of metadata - HTML-tags: <title>,< description>,< h1>,< keyword>.  It’s the particular examples of metadata.
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Search Engine
Search engine (SE) is a computer system designed to search for information. The most well-known search engine applications are web services for searching text or graphic information on the World Wide Web. There are also systems that can search for files on FTP servers, products in online stores, and information in news groups. To search for information using a search engine, the user formulates a search query. The job of the search engine is to find documents containing either the specified keywords or words related to the user's request. In this case, the search engine generates a search results page. Some engines also extract information from suitable databases and resource directories on the Internet. Search and maintenance methods are divided into four types of search engines: systems using search robots, systems controlled by humans, hybrid and meta. The architecture usually includes: A search robot (crawler) that collects information from websites or from other documents, Index, providing a quick search for the accumulated information, and Search engine - a system with a graphic user interface for the user. How does the search engine work? As a rule, systems operate in stages: The crawler receives the content; The indexer generates an index DB with structured data that is searchable; The SE provides functionality for searching indexed data. To update the search engine’s collected information, this indexing cycle is repeated. Search engines work by storing information about web pages, receiving their HTML code and URLs(Uniform Resource Locator). A crawler is a program that automatically passes through all the links found on the page and highlights them. A crawler, based on references or based on a predefined list of addresses, searches for new documents not yet known to the search engine. The site owner can exclude certain pages using robots.txt, which can be used to prevent the indexing of special files, pages or directories of the site. The search engine analyzes the content of each page for further indexing. Words can be extracted from headers, page text or special fields - meta tags. A separate crawler is looking for new URLs via scanning the links in the internet. Another robot is visiting each of the new pages to analyse the information and add it to the indexed DB. An index is a module that analyzes a page by first breaking it into parts using its own lexical and morphological algorithms. All the elements of the web page are isolated and analyzed separately. Data about web pages is stored in the index database for use in subsequent queries.
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SERP
Search engine results page () - a web page generated by the search engine in response to a user's request. One part of the search results is organic. This is a list, found and indexed by the search engine,  which is closely relevant to the query, and the ranking and display is not affected by paid advertised listings. The structure of SE results page divided into several parts, on the top 3 positions the AdWords ads is placed with a special sign “ Advertisement”. Below you’ll see the natural, or organic search results. And on the right - some additional content, like Google maps pages, search related images, etc. Usually it is ordered by descending relevance to the search query according to the ranking algorithms used in the search system. Other types of sorting can also be provided, for example, by the date of the documents. Overview of the SERP Structure There are several areas in the search results page in modern search engines: Organic search results - the main part of the results; Contextual ads (paid links) - small fragments of text, placed in search results on a fee basis. This is one of the main ways to monetize the search engine; Shortcuts (one-boxes, wizards, etc.) - the area in front of the main search results, where you can put a ready answer to a query, useful information or links, or suggest correcting typos in the request; Related request - reformulation and refinement of the entered query, similar requests; Controls: Field for entering a search request, the possibility of automatic prompts (auto-completion); Links to go to the next, previous and several other pages of the issue. Search documents are usually represented by web pages, but many systems are also able to index and provide links to files in formats such as .pdf, .doc, .ppt, etc., pages with Flash-animation (.swf). Some systems have introduced the so-called universal search: these results may be mixed, for example, the query may display results ranging from pictures, videos, news, and maps. With the implementation on the site  structured data, it is increasingly possible to see in the SERP "extended" snippets in search results, which occupy about 20-30% of the Google’s first page.
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Additional Terms of SEO
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Artificial neural network (ANN)
Artificial neural network (ANN) is a group of neuron nodes, interconnected with each other. Every circular node works as an artificial neuron that exchanges information with each other, similar to the functional principles of biological neural networks. The whole system is termed ANN. The main advantage of artificial neural network implementation lies in the ability to perform complex mathematical modelling for emulation. This helps scientists to predict different processes and trends based on the visualisation of these models. ANN is a simple system of processors (artificial neuron), in which neurons connect and interact reciprocally with each other. Each neuron periodically receives signals and sends them to others. By connecting to a reasonably large network of similar neurons, these single processors can perform quite complex actions. From the point of view of machine learning, neural networks are special cases of discriminant analysis, pattern recognition and grouping methods. From the mathematical point of view, the learning of neural networks is a multiparameter problem of nonlinear optimization. From the development of computation and programming, neural networks are a way to solve efficient parallel problems. From a cybernetic perspective, neural networks are used for problems of adaptive control and robotic algorithms. From the point of view of artificial intelligence, neural networks are the basis of the philosophy of connectionism and the main direction of the structural methods of using computer algorithms to establish the possibility of natural intelligence. Neural networks are not just programmed, but are also well trained. The possibility of ‘learning’ is one of the main advantages of ANN over traditional algorithms. Stages of problem solving Data collection for training; Selection of network topology; Preparation and normalization of data; Experimental selection of training parameters; Experimental selection of network characteristics; Actually learning; Checking the adequacy of training; Adjustment of parameters, final training; Verbalization of the network for further use. Technically, ‘learning’ is to find the coefficient connection  between neurons. During this process, the neural network is able to detect complex dependencies between data input and output and perform generalization. This means that if training succeeds, the network can return the correct results based on data not provided in training samples and incomplete and / or "noisy" and partially distorted data. So, with the help of the ANN we can predict the most probable event. For the business environment, such operations are vital in the financial, medical, construction and any decision-making field.
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SSL Certificate
(identity certificate, digital certificate) is a set of data, that adds a cryptographic key to the domain’s details and allows secure connections from a server to a browser. When installed on a web server, it activates the https protocol and the padlock to protect the user’s data from public access. Such a certificate is needed, first of all, to protect your personal information, while communicating with banks, payment systems and other organizations working with personal data - to protect transactions and prevent unauthorized access to your banking card details, passwords and other confidential data. When a certificate is installed on your server, HTTP (application protocol) is changed to HTTPs, where the ‘S’ stands for ‘secure’. Depending on the type and the browser you are using, you will see a padlock or green bar when you visit a website with SSL Certificate installed. Usually this contains the following information: the domain name for which the SSL certificate is issued; legal entity that owns it; the physical location of the holder (city, country); validity period; details of the company providing it; This confirms that the domain belongs to a real company and that its owner has the right to use the private key legally. Types of SSL Certificates Domain Validation - these are entry-level certificates, and are the most common in the world. The issuing speed varies from 2 to 10 minutes, depending on the brand. To obtain such a certificate no special documents are required. These are suitable for small sites and projects, when there is no need for a lot of trust from customers and site visitors. You need to confirm ownership of the domain: Verification via e-mail (DCV Email) - the certificate authority sends a verification letter, with a link to confirm domain ownership. Such a letter can be sent either to the email address specified in the Whois of your domain, or to one of the golden five: admin@, administrator@, hostmaster@, postmaster@, webmaster@ of your site; DNS record checking (DNS NAME) is a way for those who have a mail server set up, and Whois mail is closed by private registration. You need to create a special entry in your DNS, and the certification authority will verify it. The method is fully automatic; Verification using a hash file (HTTP CSR Hash) - the user will be provided with a special .txt file that must be uploaded to his server, the certificate authority will confirm it and the certificate will be issued. The method is fully automatic. Business Validation - these certificates are relevant for those who are thinking about trusting their products, companies and services, as the certificate authority performs a more thorough check. It is necessary to send the company documents, go through the process of "calling back" to the corporate phone. SSL certificates with Extended Validation - only EV certificates will provide the site with a green address bar in the browser. Most often, such certificates can be found at banks, online systems with a large number of visitors. SSL certificates with subdomain support (Wildcard) is a very convenient certificate when it comes to protecting a large number of subdomains within one domain. It can protect any number of subdomains on an unlimited number of servers. SAN SSL certificates are single communication certificates that can protect multiple domains, subdomains, local domains and servers. These certificates work with both external and internal domain names. Why does your company need a SSL Certificate Without SSL certificate all the information, including your name, login, password, and even banking card details, is transferred from your computer to a remote source is publically available. SSL certificate is protecting your private data with the help of cryptography, helping you to: Keep secure data exchange between servers Create/enhance the customers’ loyalty Increase the buyers’ trust and conversion rate
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IFTTT (If This Then That)
IFTTT (If This Then That) is an online service ifttt.com for creating automatic actions or “recipes”. Each “recipe” consists of two parts: the event at which the recipe is triggered, and the action that occurs in the case of this event. To implement the automation users do not need to have technical or programming knowledge. There are pre settings for almost everything, which can be realised via user interface. Examples: IF @user on Instagram posted a photo, THEN save the image to Dropbox; IF tomorrow is expected 0 ° C in London, THEN notify me; IF a child is out of school, THEN send me a letter. Over the years of its existence, more than a hundred services and applications have been integrated with IFTTT in which events can be monitored and actions created: Instagram, Feed, Dropbox, Slack, Ebay, Pocket, Blogger, Box, Evernote, Gumroad, Fitbit, Soundcloud and others. When using IFTTT, it is important not to waste energy on “reinventing the wheel”, because there are thousands of ready-made “recipes” in the site collection: Mail IF Gmail receives a new email with an attachment, THEN save this attachment to Dropbox. IF Gmail receives a new email, THEN save it as a note in Evernote. If Gmail received a letter with order confirmation from Amazon, THEN save the letter as a note in Evernote. IF there is a new letter in the Gmail inbox marked as important, then add this letter to the to-do list in Todoist. IF a new photo appeared in my Instagram account, THEN send it to a certain email address. Social Networks IF I like the photo on Instagram, THEN save this photo on Google Drive. IF a new photo is published on my Instagram, THEN post this photo on Twitter. IF profile photo has changed on Facebook, THEN set the same profile photo to Twitter. IF a new photo appeared on my Instagram, THEN add it to my Pinterest board. IF I posted a new link on Facebook, THEN post the same link on Twitter. Other Services IF it’s a certain time, THEN send messages to a certain Slack channel. IF a certain article in Wikipedia is updated, THEN send me a notification about it. IF the parcel has changed its location, THEN mark this event in Google Calendar. IF frost is expected, THEN send me an email stating that I need to cover the plants. All the above mentioned actions can be changed and customised to fit your needs. To do this, add a “recipe” to your profile and click on the pencil icon to open the edit page. For example, in the finished “rule” you can replace Dropbox with Box, Google Calendar with Outlook Calendar, or Evernote with Onenote.
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