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Metadata discloses information about the characteristics and properties that describe any entities that allow to automatically search and manage them in large information flows.

The Difference Between Data and Metadata

It is usually impossible to make an unambiguous division into data and metadata in a document because:

  • Something can be both data and metadata. Thus, the title of an article can be simultaneously referred to as metadata (as a metadata element - the title), and to the actual data (since the title is part of the text itself).
  • According to the usual definition, metadata is a set of structured information. You can create metadata for metadata, for output to special devices, or read their descriptions using text-to-speech software.

Classification of metadata

Metadata can be classified by

  • The content. Metadata can either describe the resource itself (for example, the name and size of the file), or the content of the resource (for example, "this video shows how to play football").
  • The resource as a whole. Metadata can refer to a resource as a whole or to parts of it. For example, "Title" (movie name) refers to the movie, and "Scene description" (the description of the movie episode) is separate for each episode of the film.
  • Logical inference. Metadata can be divided into three layers: the bottom layer is raw data; middle layer - metadata describing the specified "raw" data; and the top layer is metadata, which allows you to make a logical conclusion using the second layer.

The three most commonly used metadata classes are:

  • Internal metadata, which describes the structure or constituent parts of a thing. For example, the format and size of the file.
  • Administrative metadata required for information processing. Such as, information about the author, the editor, the date of publication, etc.
  • Descriptive metadata that describe the nature of a thing, its attributes. For example, a set of information-related categories, links to other subjects related to the the item in question.

In search engine optimisation SEO-experts concentrate on the concrete part of metadata - HTML-tags:

<title>,< description>,< h1>,< keyword>.  It’s the particular examples of metadata.

Additional Terms
is a word in the text that gives a concise description of the content of a text document, which allows user to better identify its subject matter. Keywords in the Web development are used mainly for searching and are the main way to organize content. Keywords in Text Analysis Key words in text analysis, (including when building an index in search engines), are especially important and representative of a particular nature of words in a text, the set of which can give a high-level description of its content for the reader. Key words (KW) are characterized by the following traits: Frequency - the most common denote the feature of the object, state or effect; Represented by significant vocabulary, sufficiently generalized in their semantics, degree of abstraction, and style. Interrelation - connected with each other by a network of semantic links, intersections of meanings; If the KWs are repeated too often in the text, the search engines may regard this as spam and not promote the given page. The KW set defines the index of words, their frequency, and predictability. Keyword in the markup of web pages In HTML, to specify keywords, there are meta elements with the respective keywords. This way of specifying keywords opens up even more opportunities for abuse. As a result, only some search engines use this metatag as a factor to improve the ranking of the pages, while others don’t. Historically, this aspect was overused in SEO and is now ignored by the leading search engines, like Google. For example, Google often ignores the keywords in the tag, because of too much abuse in the past. However, they are used by other user agents (for example, web browsers for searching bookmarks). In XHTML microformats, the keywords describing the document are presented as a list of links, each of which should lead to a page containing a list of documents that also has this keyword. Thus, the possibility of abuse is somewhat reduced, since each link should lead to real content. For such keywords, the term "tags" are more often used, and at the code level they are implemented using the micro-format tag-rel.
>> Search Engine
Search engine (SE) is a computer system designed to search for information. The most well-known search engine applications are web services for searching text or graphic information on the World Wide Web. There are also systems that can search for files on FTP servers, products in online stores, and information in news groups. To search for information using a search engine, the user formulates a search query. The job of the search engine is to find documents containing either the specified keywords or words related to the user's request. In this case, the search engine generates a search results page. Some engines also extract information from suitable databases and resource directories on the Internet. Search and maintenance methods are divided into four types of search engines: systems using search robots, systems controlled by humans, hybrid and meta. The architecture usually includes: A search robot (crawler) that collects information from websites or from other documents, Index, providing a quick search for the accumulated information, and Search engine - a system with a graphic user interface for the user. How does the search engine work? As a rule, systems operate in stages: The crawler receives the content; The indexer generates an index DB with structured data that is searchable; The SE provides functionality for searching indexed data. To update the search engine’s collected information, this indexing cycle is repeated. Search engines work by storing information about web pages, receiving their HTML code and URLs(Uniform Resource Locator). A crawler is a program that automatically passes through all the links found on the page and highlights them. A crawler, based on references or based on a predefined list of addresses, searches for new documents not yet known to the search engine. The site owner can exclude certain pages using robots.txt, which can be used to prevent the indexing of special files, pages or directories of the site. The search engine analyzes the content of each page for further indexing. Words can be extracted from headers, page text or special fields - meta tags. A separate crawler is looking for new URLs via scanning the links in the internet. Another robot is visiting each of the new pages to analyse the information and add it to the indexed DB. An index is a module that analyzes a page by first breaking it into parts using its own lexical and morphological algorithms. All the elements of the web page are isolated and analyzed separately. Data about web pages is stored in the index database for use in subsequent queries.
Search engine results page () - a web page generated by the search engine in response to a user's request. One part of the search results is organic. This is a list, found and indexed by the search engine,  which is closely relevant to the query, and the ranking and display is not affected by paid advertised listings. The structure of SE results page divided into several parts, on the top 3 positions the AdWords ads is placed with a special sign “ Advertisement”. Below you’ll see the natural, or organic search results. And on the right - some additional content, like Google maps pages, search related images, etc. Usually it is ordered by descending relevance to the search query according to the ranking algorithms used in the search system. Other types of sorting can also be provided, for example, by the date of the documents. Overview of the SERP Structure There are several areas in the search results page in modern search engines: Organic search results - the main part of the results; Contextual ads (paid links) - small fragments of text, placed in search results on a fee basis. This is one of the main ways to monetize the search engine; Shortcuts (one-boxes, wizards, etc.) - the area in front of the main search results, where you can put a ready answer to a query, useful information or links, or suggest correcting typos in the request; Related request - reformulation and refinement of the entered query, similar requests; Controls: Field for entering a search request, the possibility of automatic prompts (auto-completion); Links to go to the next, previous and several other pages of the issue. Search documents are usually represented by web pages, but many systems are also able to index and provide links to files in formats such as .pdf, .doc, .ppt, etc., pages with Flash-animation (.swf). Some systems have introduced the so-called universal search: these results may be mixed, for example, the query may display results ranging from pictures, videos, news, and maps. With the implementation on the site  structured data, it is increasingly possible to see in the SERP "extended" snippets in search results, which occupy about 20-30% of the Google’s first page.
Additional Terms of SEO
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.Net Framework
The .NET Framework is a software platform released by Microsoft in 2002. The platform is based on the Common Language Runtime (CLR), which is suitable for different programming languages. The CLR functionality is available in any programming language using this environment. The main idea in developing the .NET framework was to ensure developer freedom by allowing to create applications of various types that can run on different devices and in various environments. Main features The .NET framework provides a powerful platform for building apps. Its main features include: Multi-language support. The platform is based on the Common Language Runtime (CLR), thanks to which .NET supports several languages: along with C #, VB.NET, C ++, F #, and various dialects of other languages associated with .NET, such as Delphi. NET. During the process of compiling, the code in any of these languages is assembled in a common language CIL (Common Intermediate Language) - a kind of assembler of the .NET platform. Therefore, we can make separate modules of one application in separate semantics. Cross platform .NET is a portable platform (with some restrictions). For example, the latest version of the platform at the moment. NET Framework is supported on most modern Windows OS (Windows 10 / 8.1 / 8/7 / Vista). And thanks to the Mono project, you can create apps that will work on other Linux operating systems, including Android and iOS mobile platforms. Powerful class library. .NET provides a single class library for all supported languages. And whatever application we want to write on C # - a text editor, a chat, or a complex website - one way or another, we will use the .NET class library. A variety of technologies. The common language runtime and the base class library are the basis for a whole stack of technologies that developers can use to build certain applications. For example, ADO.NET technology is designed to work with databases in this technology stack. For building graphical applications with rich interface - WPF technology. For creating websites - ASP.NET, etc. Another noteworthy feature of the .NET framework is automatic garbage collection. And this means that in most cases programmers don’t have to worry about free memory. This CLR itself will call the garbage collector and clear the memory.
is an abbreviation of Asynchronous Javascript and XML. This is a technology to access the server without reloading the page. Which means pressure decrease  on the data transmitting channels. Due to this, response time is reduced and a web app interacts more like a desktop one. Despite the fact that the name of the technology contains the letter X (from the word XML), it is not necessary to use XML. By AJAX, we mean any communication with the server without reloading the page, organized using JavaScript. AJAX Advantages Ability to create a convenient web-interface Active user interaction Partial page reload, instead of full The convenience of use AJAX uses two methods of working with a web page: changing it without reloading it, and dynamically accessing the server. What can we do with AJAX? Interface elements First of all, AJAX is useful for forms and buttons associated with elementary actions: add to cart, subscribe, fulfil some data in the contact form, etc. Such actions on the sites are carried out without reloading the page. Live Search Live search is a classic AJAX use case, adopted by modern search engines. A user starts typing a search phrase, and JavaScript offers possible options, getting a list of the most likely additions from the server. How the System Works AJAX technology includes the following steps: A user accesses AJAX; most often this happens by pressing a button, requesting to learn more detailed information. The service forwards the request to the server along with the associated data. For example, you may need to download some file or specific information from the database. After receiving the response from the database, the server sends it to the browser. JavaScript receives the response, decrypts and shows it to the user. An XMLHttpRequest object is created for data exchange; it performs an intermediary function between the server and the browser. There are two types of requests - GET and POST. GET refers to a document on the server, the web resource’s URL is provided as an argument. You can use the JavaScript Escape feature to ensure query continuity. POST is used for large amounts of data and provide better security level. With POST the user’s data is transferred in the cryptographed way, with GET request all information, including the personal name and passwords, is transferred openly, directly in the body of the request code.
Graphic Design
Graphic design is a process aimed at creating visual graphics for the problem-solving through the use of illustration, typography, and photography. As a discipline graphic design in part focuses on visual communication and presentation. A designer can work with visual arts, typographic design, and page layout techniques. Sections Graphic design can be classified by types of tasks: Calligraphy, fonts, book design. Corporate identity, including brand names and logos. Visual communications, including orientation systems (navigation and other icons). Poster products, including advertising posters. Visual solutions for product packaging, including confectionery and food. The visual style of TV programs and other media products. This is becoming an increasingly integrating profession that unites the methods and principles of various professional disciplines in working with the complex, multi-level subject of visual reality. In addition to the visual text, image, space, graphic design can master other features, such as time, motion, and interactivity. Furthermore it can operate with more diverse means of marketing, economic, and cultural communications. Professional Software for Graphic Design For offset printing: Adobe Photoshop, Gimp (work with raster images), Adobe Illustrator, Inkscape (work with vector images), QuarkXPress and  Adobe InDesign (page layout). For outdoor advertising and screen printing: Corel Draw. Basic Graphic Design Products Graphic design is one of the trends, helping in creation awesome products. For example, product packaging may include organized text,  a logo or other image, and clean design elements, such as color and shapes, that contribute to the overall perception of the picture. Composition is one of the most important graphic design properties, especially when using preliminary materials or other elements. websites book layouts and illustrations advertising and informational posters graphic solution of postcards and postage stamps records and DVDs corporate style and its main element - the logo Brochures, booklets,  calendars and other advertising products souvenir products Advantages of images, implemented via graphic design technic: Low file storage volume  as a result - quick downloading time; Flexibility of usage in adaptive web and mobile interfaces; Great scalability: convenient customisation. Common use of graphic design includes advertising, magazines, packaging, and web.
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