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Multi-factor authentication (MFA)

Multi-factor authentication (MFA)  is an extended authentication, a method of controlling access to a computer, in which the user must enter more than one proof of authentication to gain access to information.

The categories of security access include:

  • Knowledge. This is information that the subject, computer, already knows. For example, password or PIN.
  • Possession. Access is granted via an external device, with identification credentials on it, which the user possess. For example, electronic or magnetic card, token, flash memory.
  • Property. This is the means by which the receiving party can verify access based on real  human characteristics. Eg. biometrics, natural unique differences: face, fingerprints, capillary patterns, DNA sequence.

Authentication Factors

The use of one or another characteristic in the system depends on the required reliability, security and cost of implementation. There are 3 authentication factors:

  • The knowledge factor. A password can be a voice word, a text word, a combination for a lock, or a personal identification number (PIN). This mechanism can be implemented quite easily and has a low cost. But it has significant drawbacks: it’s often difficult to keep a password in secret, attackers are constantly inventing new ways to steal and hack them.
  • The possession/ownership factor. This an authentication device, which the user possess. Here it is important to be unique when protecting information. One may use devices, such as plastic, smart cards. The user may have an external key and lock for the computer. For a hacker it becomes more difficult to get hold of such a device than to crack a password. Even if it is stolen, the user can immediately report the theft of the device.
  • The property factor. This is a great form of identification that relies solely on the human characteristics, ie biometrics. This is the means of access based on the features of the user. It can be a photo, a fingerprint, a voice, or eye recognition, etc.  From the point of view of the user, this method is the most simple: you do not need to either remember the password or carry an authentication device with you. However, the biometric system must be technically advanced enough to distinguish an authorized user from an intruder with similar biometric parameters.

Security

Multifactor authentication drastically reduces the possibility of identity theft online. Password protection is not enough to lower the risks of fraud. However, many multi-factor authentication approaches remain vulnerable to “phishing”, “man in the middle”.

To choose a particular factor or method of authentication for the system, it is necessary, first of all, to define the required degree of security, the cost of building the system, and ensuring the mobility of the subject.

Practical Implementation

Many multifactor authentication products require the client software from the user. Some developers have created separate installation packages for logging in, web access credentials and VPN connections.

Multifactor authentication is not standardized. There are various forms of its implementation. Therefore, the problem lies in its interoperability. There are many processes and aspects that must be considered when selecting, developing, testing, implementing, and supporting a holistic security ID management system, including all relevant mechanisms and related technologies.

Additional Terms
Barcode
– graphic information applied to the surface, marking or packaging of products, allowing the requisite information to be read via technical means – a sequence of black and white stripes or other geometric shapes. Fields of application Document flow acceleration in banking and other payment systems; Minimisation of data-reading errors due to process automation; Identification of employees (corporate barcode); Organisation of time recording systems; Unification of forms for collecting different types of data (medicine, statistics, etc.); Simplification of warehouse inventory; Control over the availability and promotion of goods in stores, ensuring their safety, etc. Practical use Historically, the EAN / UPC code is most commonly used in trading. Originally, the US UPC system was developed, containing 12 digits for the encoding of the product, and it gained such popularity that European countries began paying attention to it. However, an entire range of codes was already being used to encode goods of the USA and Canada, and the firms were exclusively registered in the USA. The developers of the European encoding system EAN-13 faced a serious task – to extend the range of codes and organise an independent US registration system, ensuring maximum compatibility with UPC encoding. The solution was to add the thirteenth digit to the leftmost position (it is usually indicated by the Arabic digit to the left of the barcode) using 12 digital templates, just as in the UPC. At the same time, it was possible to maintain the backward compatibility of EAN-13 with the UPC coding – which became a subset of the EAN-13 coding with the first digit 0. Logical structure The EAN-13 code, from the point of view of encoding, can be conditionally divided into 5 zones: Prefix of the national organisation GS1 (3 digits); Manufacturer's product registration number (4-6 digits); Product code (3-5 digits); Check digit (1 digit); Additional field (optional barcode field, sometimes there is a ">" sign, "free zone indicator"). How do computer terminals identify different parts of code? They don’t. It’s not necessary. What matters is the unique code, and it’s this code that’s written entirely within the database of a trading enterprise. The exception to this is codes starting with a deuce, where an enterprise can encrypt its own logic for the product. Barcodes are widely used in the automation of the trade sector, especially with big retailers. All the identity criteria, such as ID, names of the goods and prices, can be programmed to be read by the equipment using the barcode.
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Command Line Interface
Command line interface (CLI) - a kind of textual interface between a person and a computer, in which computer instructions are given mainly by typing text strings (commands) from the keyboard, on UNIX-systems it is possible to use a mouse. Also known as the console user interface. The command-line interface, often mentioned as command-line user interface, is contrasted with the menu-based control systems of the program, as well as to various implementations of the graphic user interface (GUI). The output format of the information in the command-line interface is not regulated; usually, this is a simple text output, but it can also be graphic, audio, etc. Advantages Small memory consumption compared to the menu system. In modern software, there is a large number of commands, many of which are extremely rare. Therefore, even in some programs with a graphical interface, the command line is used: the command set (provided that the user knows this command) is much faster than, for example, navigating through the menu. A natural extension of the command line interface is the batch interface. In essence its a sequence of commands written to a file of ordinary text format, after which the file can be executed in the program, which will lead to the same (in most cases) effect, as if these commands were entered one by one on the command line. Examples - .bat-files in DOS and Windows, shell-scripts in Unix-systems. If the program is fully or almost completely managed by commands from the command line interface, and supports a batch interface, a skilful combination of the command line interface with a graphical interface provides the user with very powerful capabilities. Disadvantages The command-line interface is not user-friendly for those, who have begun familiarizing themselves with the computer with a graphical mode, due to the almost unavailable discoverability. The need to study the syntax of commands and memorize abbreviations is complicated, because each command can have its own designations. Without auto-completion, entering long and special characters from the keyboard can be difficult. No analog input. For example, adjusting the volume with the sounded slider allows you to set the appropriate volume faster than a command like aumix -v 90. Usage Historically, the main areas of application of the command line interface were on computer terminals  in 1960-1980s, for MS-DOS, Unix operational systems and later on on Apple DOS. Now it’s used for development of chats, computer games and program testing.
>> Content Management Application (CMA)
Content Management Application (CMA)  - a computer program used to provide a joint process of creating, managing, and editing content. The main functions of the CMA: Provide tools for creating content, organizing collaboration; Manage content: storage, versioning, adherence, document flow management, etc.; Publish content; Show information in a convenient form for navigation and search. A content management application can contain a variety of data: documents, photos, scientific data, phone number, and so on. Such an application is often used to store, review, manage,  and publish documentation. Version control is one of the main advantages when content is accessed by a group of individuals. Kinds of Apps In general, CMAs are divided into: Enterprise Content Management Application(ECMA);   Web Content Management Application (WCMA); Due to the fact that CMA have a deep internal classification by subject areas, the term CMA replaced the WCMS, becoming a synonym for the website management system. Such CMAs allow you to manage textual and graphical content of the site, providing the user with a convenient interface for working with content, handy tools for publishing and storing information, automating the process of placing data in bases and its output in HTML. There are many ready-made solutions for content management, including free ones. All applications available can be divided into 3 types according to the way they work: Generate pages on request. Applications of this type operate on the basis of the principle “Editing module → Database → Presentation module”. When requested, the presentation module generates a page with content, based on the information from the base. Database information is modified by the editing module. Pages are re-created by the server with each request, which creates an additional load on system resources. The load can be repeatedly reduced by using caching tools that are available in modern web servers. Page generation when editing. Systems of this type are used to edit pages that, when making changes to the content of a site, create a set of static pages. With this method, you are sacrificing interactivity between the visitor and the contents of the site. Mixed type. It combines the advantages of the previous types. It can be implemented by the caching principle - the presentation module generates the page once, later it is loaded much faster from the cache. The cache may be updated either automatically, after a certain period of time or when making changes to certain sections of the site, or manually at the command of the administrator. Another approach is to save certain data blocks at the stage of editing a site and to assemble a page from these blocks when a user requests a corresponding page.
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Additional Terms of Data management
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.Net Framework
The .NET Framework is a software platform released by Microsoft in 2002. The platform is based on the Common Language Runtime (CLR), which is suitable for different programming languages. The CLR functionality is available in any programming language using this environment. The main idea in developing the .NET framework was to ensure developer freedom by allowing to create applications of various types that can run on different devices and in various environments. Main features The .NET framework provides a powerful platform for building apps. Its main features include: Multi-language support. The platform is based on the Common Language Runtime (CLR), thanks to which .NET supports several languages: along with C #, VB.NET, C ++, F #, and various dialects of other languages associated with .NET, such as Delphi. NET. During the process of compiling, the code in any of these languages is assembled in a common language CIL (Common Intermediate Language) - a kind of assembler of the .NET platform. Therefore, we can make separate modules of one application in separate semantics. Cross platform .NET is a portable platform (with some restrictions). For example, the latest version of the platform at the moment. NET Framework is supported on most modern Windows OS (Windows 10 / 8.1 / 8/7 / Vista). And thanks to the Mono project, you can create apps that will work on other Linux operating systems, including Android and iOS mobile platforms. Powerful class library. .NET provides a single class library for all supported languages. And whatever application we want to write on C # - a text editor, a chat, or a complex website - one way or another, we will use the .NET class library. A variety of technologies. The common language runtime and the base class library are the basis for a whole stack of technologies that developers can use to build certain applications. For example, ADO.NET technology is designed to work with databases in this technology stack. For building graphical applications with rich interface - WPF technology. For creating websites - ASP.NET, etc. Another noteworthy feature of the .NET framework is automatic garbage collection. And this means that in most cases programmers don’t have to worry about free memory. This CLR itself will call the garbage collector and clear the memory.
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AJAX
is an abbreviation of Asynchronous Javascript and XML. This is a technology to access the server without reloading the page. Which means pressure decrease  on the data transmitting channels. Due to this, response time is reduced and a web app interacts more like a desktop one. Despite the fact that the name of the technology contains the letter X (from the word XML), it is not necessary to use XML. By AJAX, we mean any communication with the server without reloading the page, organized using JavaScript. AJAX Advantages Ability to create a convenient web-interface Active user interaction Partial page reload, instead of full The convenience of use AJAX uses two methods of working with a web page: changing it without reloading it, and dynamically accessing the server. What can we do with AJAX? Interface elements First of all, AJAX is useful for forms and buttons associated with elementary actions: add to cart, subscribe, fulfil some data in the contact form, etc. Such actions on the sites are carried out without reloading the page. Live Search Live search is a classic AJAX use case, adopted by modern search engines. A user starts typing a search phrase, and JavaScript offers possible options, getting a list of the most likely additions from the server. How the System Works AJAX technology includes the following steps: A user accesses AJAX; most often this happens by pressing a button, requesting to learn more detailed information. The service forwards the request to the server along with the associated data. For example, you may need to download some file or specific information from the database. After receiving the response from the database, the server sends it to the browser. JavaScript receives the response, decrypts and shows it to the user. An XMLHttpRequest object is created for data exchange; it performs an intermediary function between the server and the browser. There are two types of requests - GET and POST. GET refers to a document on the server, the web resource’s URL is provided as an argument. You can use the JavaScript Escape feature to ensure query continuity. POST is used for large amounts of data and provide better security level. With POST the user’s data is transferred in the cryptographed way, with GET request all information, including the personal name and passwords, is transferred openly, directly in the body of the request code.
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Graphic Design
Graphic design is a process aimed at creating visual graphics for the problem-solving through the use of illustration, typography, and photography. As a discipline graphic design in part focuses on visual communication and presentation. A designer can work with visual arts, typographic design, and page layout techniques. Sections Graphic design can be classified by types of tasks: Calligraphy, fonts, book design. Corporate identity, including brand names and logos. Visual communications, including orientation systems (navigation and other icons). Poster products, including advertising posters. Visual solutions for product packaging, including confectionery and food. The visual style of TV programs and other media products. This is becoming an increasingly integrating profession that unites the methods and principles of various professional disciplines in working with the complex, multi-level subject of visual reality. In addition to the visual text, image, space, graphic design can master other features, such as time, motion, and interactivity. Furthermore it can operate with more diverse means of marketing, economic, and cultural communications. Professional Software for Graphic Design For offset printing: Adobe Photoshop, Gimp (work with raster images), Adobe Illustrator, Inkscape (work with vector images), QuarkXPress and  Adobe InDesign (page layout). For outdoor advertising and screen printing: Corel Draw. Basic Graphic Design Products Graphic design is one of the trends, helping in creation awesome products. For example, product packaging may include organized text,  a logo or other image, and clean design elements, such as color and shapes, that contribute to the overall perception of the picture. Composition is one of the most important graphic design properties, especially when using preliminary materials or other elements. websites book layouts and illustrations advertising and informational posters graphic solution of postcards and postage stamps records and DVDs corporate style and its main element - the logo Brochures, booklets,  calendars and other advertising products souvenir products Advantages of images, implemented via graphic design technic: Low file storage volume  as a result - quick downloading time; Flexibility of usage in adaptive web and mobile interfaces; Great scalability: convenient customisation. Common use of graphic design includes advertising, magazines, packaging, and web.
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