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Raw data

Raw data (also known as primary data) is uninterpreted data from a primary source, having characteristics related to it and that have not been subjected to any processing or other manipulation.

Raw data (also known as primary data) is uninterpreted data from a primary source, which have not been subjected to any processing or other manipulation.

  • The raw data can be entered into a computer program or used in manual procedures, such as the statistical analysis of a survey.
  • It may be the binary data of electronic storage devices such as hard disk drives.

As it is not processed by the computer, it is considered "raw data". To continue the cooking analogy, computer-processed data is sometimes referred to as "cooked data."

In computing, raw data have the following characteristics:

  • May contain human or mechanical errors;
  • May include various formulas (colloquial);
  • Unencrypted and uncoordinated;
  • Anomalies, which require confirmation or citation.

For example, data entry from a sheet may contain dates. The raw data are in many forms: for example,  "31/12/2017", "12/31/17", “31 December 2017", "31 December" Or "today". Capturing these dates requires converting them into a standardized format for easier reading by humans or computers.

  • Data and information are distinguished from information that is the final product of the processed data.

For example, point of sale (POS terminals, cash registers) in a busy supermarket collects huge amounts of raw data every day about customers. The list of groceries and their prices and time and date of purchase do not give much information until they are processed. Once analyzed by the software or even by a human researcher using a pen and calculator, this raw data may indicate certain elements that each group of customers buy and serve as statistics.

Tim Berners-Lee (inventor of the World Wide Web) believes that the exchange of raw data is important for society in accordance with the principle of open knowledge, which means that everyone should have rights to exchange all raw data.

Additional Terms
Command Line Interface
Command line interface (CLI) - a kind of textual interface between a person and a computer, in which computer instructions are given mainly by typing text strings (commands) from the keyboard, on UNIX-systems it is possible to use a mouse. Also known as the console user interface. The command-line interface, often mentioned as command-line user interface, is contrasted with the menu-based control systems of the program, as well as to various implementations of the graphic user interface (GUI). The output format of the information in the command-line interface is not regulated; usually, this is a simple text output, but it can also be graphic, audio, etc. Advantages Small memory consumption compared to the menu system. In modern software, there is a large number of commands, many of which are extremely rare. Therefore, even in some programs with a graphical interface, the command line is used: the command set (provided that the user knows this command) is much faster than, for example, navigating through the menu. A natural extension of the command line interface is the batch interface. In essence its a sequence of commands written to a file of ordinary text format, after which the file can be executed in the program, which will lead to the same (in most cases) effect, as if these commands were entered one by one on the command line. Examples - .bat-files in DOS and Windows, shell-scripts in Unix-systems. If the program is fully or almost completely managed by commands from the command line interface, and supports a batch interface, a skilful combination of the command line interface with a graphical interface provides the user with very powerful capabilities. Disadvantages The command-line interface is not user-friendly for those, who have begun familiarizing themselves with the computer with a graphical mode, due to the almost unavailable discoverability. The need to study the syntax of commands and memorize abbreviations is complicated, because each command can have its own designations. Without auto-completion, entering long and special characters from the keyboard can be difficult. No analog input. For example, adjusting the volume with the sounded slider allows you to set the appropriate volume faster than a command like aumix -v 90. Usage Historically, the main areas of application of the command line interface were on computer terminals  in 1960-1980s, for MS-DOS, Unix operational systems and later on on Apple DOS. Now it’s used for chats, computer games and program testing.
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Data management
is a set of functions to ensure the required presentation of data, its accumulation, storage, updating, sampling, filtering, and searching, based on given criteria and data output. DMP (data management platform) is a special software that is used for storing, organizing and analyzing data, created for business purposes as a tool for determining necessary sampling.   First-party data - data, the source of which were your own resources - for example, user registration, clickstream. Second-party data - figures, which were collected in the statistical systems, such as: the results of some statistical services, advertising campaign trackers - clicks, views, visits, likes, and shares. Third-party - data, received from a source the recipient does not have any relation to. As a rule, this is information, acquired from data processing and storage services - DMP and Data Exchanges, or from other providers of data-sites, payment services, mailings and many other sources that have information. DMP allows the decision makers in estimations of the historical data fluctuation and creation of the trends and forecasts to make the correct decision. DMP allows the decision makers, who estimate the historical data fluctuations, and create trends and forecasts, to make the correct decision. F.ex., data management system can help media purchases and schedule advertising campaigns through behavioural targeting or audience expansion using look-alike modeling. Look-alike modelling is a search for users similar to those who have already become customers. Data Management Platform assumes complete control over your data, both own (first-party data) and indirect (second-party data). You can easily abandon a bad data provider. With the help of DMP work on data grabbing, storing and analysing becomes easier and much more productive: mathematical modelling of different trends, segmentation of special groups of data and clusterization of data could be done in a couple of clicks.  At the same time, your data is protected both legally and technically (using encrypted connections). How to use DMP in sales and marketing Among the most popular examples of data management technology implementation in the business are - the user behaviour analysis; - potential clients segmentation - and target audience focusing for all kind of advertising. Such an approach as look-alike modelling can help create the most realistic scenario of future business development based on mathematical modelling.
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Database
is a set of data organized in accordance with certain rules and maintained in the computer memory, characterizing the current state of a certain subject area, and used to meet the information needs of users. There are many definitions of the concept of "database,” reflecting rather the subjective opinion of certain authors, but there is no generally accepted uniform definition. Other examples of database definitions are as follows: A database is a set of permanently stored data used by the application software, or by the individual to structurize massive amount of information. A database is a shared set of logically related data designed to meet the user's information needs. Database management system (DBMS) - is a set of programs that enables you to keep, extract, and modify information from a database. There are different types of DBMS, from small systems running on PCs to large systems, which run on mainframes. Main functions of DBMS Data management in external memory (on disks); Data management in RAM using disk cache; Logging changes, backing up and restoring the database after a failure; Database languages support (data definition and manipulation languages). A very large database (VLDB) is a database that occupies an extremely large volume on a physical storage device. The term implies the maximum possible volumes of databases, which are determined by the latest achievements in the technologies of physical data storage and software operations. Classification by degree of distribution Centralized: A database fully supported on one computer. Distributed: Component parts are located in different nodes of the computer network in accordance with some criterion. Heterogeneous distribution: fragments of a distributed database in different nodes of the network are supported by more than one DBMS. Homogeneous distribution: fragments of a distributed database in different nodes of the network are supported by the same DBMS. Fragmented: the method of data distribution is fragmentation, vertical or horizontal. Replicated: the method of distribution is replication.Give us your feedback and suggest, what terms should be added. We'll publish them in our dictionary and share with all our readers.
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Additional Terms of Data management
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Networking Hardwear
Networking hardware is a set of devices necessary for the operation of a computer network, for example: a router, a switch, a hub, a patch panel, etc.   Active networking hardware is equipment containing electronic circuits receiving power from an electrical network or other sources and performing the functions of amplification, signal transformation, and others.  This means such equipment is able to process the signal by special algorithms. In the networks there is a package data transfer, each data package also contains technical information about its source, purpose, the integrity of information, etc, allowing to deliver the package to its destination. Active networking hardware includes the following types of devices: Network adapter - a card that is installed in the computer and provides its connection to the LAN; Repeater - a device, usually with two ports, designed to repeat the signal in order to increase the length of the network segment; Hub (active hub, multiport repeater) - a device with 4-32 ports, used to connect users to the network; Bridge - a device with 2 ports, usually used to combine several LAN (local area network) workgroups, allows you to filter network traffic by analyzing network (MAC) addresses; Switch - a device with several (4-32) ports, used to combine several LAN working groups (otherwise called multiport bridge); Router (router) - used to combine several  LAN workgroups, allows you to filter network traffic by analyzing network (IP) addresses; Retranslator - to create an advanced wireless network with a larger coverage area and is an alternative to a wired network. By default, the device operates in the signal amplification mode and acts as a relay station that catches the signal from the base network router or access point and transfers it to previously unavailable sites. Media converter - a device, usually with two ports, used to convert the data transfer medium (coaxial-twisted pair, twisted-pair optical fibre); A network transceiver is a device, usually with two ports, commonly used to convert the data format. A transceiver can be mentioned as a Medium Access Unit (MAU) in Ethernet network terminology. Additionally to this set of devices, to become a part of the network, a computer must have a network interface card (NIC). Mentioned above networking hardware can be called a set of computer networking devices or network equipment.  
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API
(application programming interface) is a set of ready-made classes, procedures, functions, structures and constants provided by the application (library, service) or operating system for use in external software products. Programmers use this when writing all kinds of apps, in order to implement data exchange with external software in the most efficient manner. API as a way of app integration API defines the functionality that the program provides. If the program is treated as a control unit, then the API is a set of "knobs" that are available to the user and which he or she can tweak. Software components interact with each other through the API. In this case, components usually form a hierarchy - high-level components use APIs of low-level, and those in turn use APIs of lower-levels. API of operating systems. Problems related to API diversity. Almost all operating systems (UNIX, Windows, OS X, etc.) have an API, with which programmers can create applications for this operating system. The main API of operating systems is a number of system calls. In the software industry, common standard APIs for basic functionality have an important role, since they ensure that all programs that use the common API will work equally well, or at least in the usual way. In case of the GUI API, this means that the programs will have a similar user interface, which facilitates the process of mastering new software products. On the other hand, the differences in the APIs of different operating systems make it very difficult to transfer apps between platforms. However, there are various methods for circumventing this complexity - writing "intermediate" APIs (wxWidgets API API, GTK, etc.), writing libraries that display system calls of one OS to calls of another OS (runtime environments like Wine, cygwin and etc.), the introduction of coding standards in programming languages (for example, the standard C language library), writing of interpreted languages implemented on different platforms (perl, python, php, Java, etc.).
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Material Design
- the design of software and applications for Android operating systems. First introduced at the Google I/O conference on June 25, 2014. Initially, within the company, it was invented under the codename "quantum paper.” The main metaphor of material design is flat paper, located in three-dimensional space. The idea of this design can be seen in applications that open and collapse like cards, using the effects of shadows. According to the idea of Google's designers, apps should not have sharp corners; cards should switch smoothly and almost imperceptibly. Material design in Applications The material design is used fully in the operating systems Android Lollipop, Android Marshmallow, Android Nougat, Android Oreo and also in some apps of previous versions. Why apps need a material design It serves two purposes: the standardisation of numerous products of the company; the unification of app user interfaces for Android. After the dominance of “skeuomorphism,” the web and the interfaces tilted toward a radical flattening, but it turned out to be just one more extreme. In order to be understandable and international, the objects of the interface should have an analogue, a metaphor in the real world. Such a metaphor was paper. Thin, flat, but located in three-dimensional space and having shadows, speed of movement, and acceleration. 4 principles of Material Design Material Design is based on four basic principles: Tactile surfaces. The interface is composed of tangible layers of so-called "digital paper". These layers are located at different heights and cast shadows on each other, which helps users to better understand the anatomy of the interface and the principle of interaction with it. Polygraphic design. If we count the layers as pieces of "digital paper", then, as regards "digital ink" (all that is depicted on "digital paper"), an approach is taken from traditional graphic design: for example, magazine and poster. Meaningful animation. In the real world, objects do not arise from nowhere and do not disappear into anywhere. Therefore, in Material Design, we always think about how to use the animation in layers and in "digital ink" to give users hints about the interface. Adaptive design. It's about how we apply the previous three concepts on different devices with different resolutions and screen sizes. The material design is one of the modern trends in the visualisation of mobile applications whose popularity is growing day by day.
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