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Freemium

Freemium is a business model that offers the use of software applications, online services, or computer games for free, while an enhanced (improved, premium) version of the product, with advanced functionality, services, or other related features, are offered for an additional fee.

In the 1990-2000s, programs distributed under the terms "freemium", as a rule, belonged to the shareware group. Since 2010, "freemium" is regarded as a separate class of software.

Usually, a freemium model is used when it is important to attract more potential customers to the project. To implement this strategy, the owner sets the lowest possible entry threshold for using the app. In this case, as a result, the share of paying users is quite small.

The ability to pay for the full version without leaving the mobile application, transfers freemium apps to the category of projects that support in-app purchase.

Product distribution based on the "freemium" model serves to:

  • Attract a wide range of users;
  • Receive feedback from users;
  • Estimate a demand for a product (service) in the market;
  • Identify people and organizations willing to pay for a product (service) with improved qualities;
  • and others.

Most software products provided on the basis of the "freemium" model are limited to:

  • Set of available functions;
  • Amount of free space;
  • Number of licenses;
  • Sphere of usage  (for example, free antivirus only for home use or only for educational institutions).

"Free-to-play" is the term used for massive multiplayer online games (MMOG).You can play for free, but make regular small purchases to gain additional features or advanced conditions, improving your playing potential. Most social games are monetized this way; provided that you buy game currency for real money first, and then spend it on virtual items.


Mobile application stores like Google Play and the App Store almost profit by the "free-to-play"/"freemium" programs.
Additional Terms
AppStore
is an application store accessed via iTunes containing various apps for iPhone smartphones, iPod Touch, iPad tablets, and also for Mac personal computers and allowing to buy them or download for free. Similar to Google Play for Android applications. The App Store offers more than 1.5 million apps for iPhone and iPod Touch and about 1 million for the iPad; The number of downloads exceeded 100 billion; The user base is about 575 million. Applications are divided into many categories, including games and social networking apps. Costs for an App range from $ 0.99 to $ 9.99, and significantly more for professional software. However, most apps are distributed through the App Store for free. The store is supervised by Apple experts. Each application is equipped with a special electronic certificate. If somebody starts to commit illegal actions with the purchased program, they will remove it from the database, and developers will be "severely reprimanded". Revenues from sales of apps are distributed as follows - the authors receive 70%, Apple collects 30% of the share in order to maintain the store. Officially, Apple claims that they don’t intend to make money on sales. Developers also have an opportunity to release free apps. It is also interesting that all purchased programs can be registered in iTunes to download all the new updates. In the iPod Touch, the App Store service works when you connect to the Internet via Wi-Fi. So users can buy and download apps through the wireless network from anywhere. Applications are available either for free or have a certain cost which is charged from the user's account in the iTunes Store. The App Store will promptly notify the user about the latest updates, which happens regularly. The App Store service is available in iTunes for both Macs and personal computers, wherein apps are synchronized with the iPhone or iPod Touch via a USB interface.
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BYOA (Build your own application)
BYOA (Build your own application) is a fast-growing trend for people who have no programming skills to create software applications via platforms. It works as a constructor, consisting of easy to build features, which can be integrated into semi-customised app. Factors driving the BYOA trend include the consumerization of IT, the growing mobile application market, and the increasing availability of easy-to-use development platforms. Non-technical users can create apps for personal or business use or sell them through application stores. Application development platforms are such websites as BuildAnApp, Podio, and Force.com. In its simplest form, a user-designed program can be an application that replaces a worksheet with a better interface and improved functionality. However, most platforms offer several options to accommodate users of varying skill levels. BYOA also means Bring Your Own Application (sometimes called BYOD = bring your own device), which is the tendency for employees to use third-party apps and cloud services in the workplace. Today it is not so important whether employees use a corporate laptop and smartphone, or they bring their own devices. The working environment is at the discretion of the end user. Starting with instant messengers and ending with office suites, people themselves choose tools that help them cope with work a lot quicker and easier. This changes both business processes within companies and the corporate software market How BYOA Affect the Mobile App Development? While BYOA contributes to the efficient organization of the work environment, both in the office and beyond, developers have to consider every aspect related to the issue of security, as business leaders are becoming increasingly interested in the quality of applications used by their employees. The main feature of BYOA is that a significant amount of data is stored in the cloud. And the corporate data is located next to the personal data of employees on the same device. To a certain extent, this is an inconvenience for companies, since information is no longer contained within the local physical system. And there is an additional requirement for developers - to create sufficiently reliable security protocols that can protect enterprise data against various mobile threats.
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Framework
is the skeleton of the software system (or subsystem). It includes code libraries, auxiliary programs, programming language and other software that facilitates the programming and integration of various components of a large project. Usually, the union is due to the use of a single API. Examples: web frameworks like PHP frameworks Zend Framework and Symfony, or Django, written in Python. "Framework" differs from the “library” in that the latter can be used in a software product simply as a set of subprograms of similar functionality, without affecting the architecture of the software product and without imposing any restrictions on it. While the "framework" dictates the rules for building the architecture of an app, setting the default behavior at the initial stage of development - the "framework," which will need to be expanded and changed, according to the specified requirements. The Application Framework One of the main advantages of using "frameworks" in applications is that such items speed up the development of the software. Some examples of frameworks are the "standard" solution for printing documents, email processing, which can be integrated in the structure of the app. "Frameworks" became popular with the advent of graphical user interfaces (GUI). One of the first commercial app frameworks was MacApp, written by Apple for Macintosh. Originally created with the help of an extended (object-oriented) version of the language Object Pascal, it was subsequently rewritten to C ++. The examples of application frameworks are: Cocoa for Mac OS X, as well as free frameworks that exist as part of Mozilla, GNOME, OpenOffice.org, and KDE projects. Microsoft had a similar product for Windows, called Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC). At the moment, the main Microsoft product for software development is the .NET Framework. Cross-platform app frameworks (for Macintosh, Linux, and Windows operating systems) are, for example, widget toolkit, wxWidgets, Qt, MyCoRe or FOX toolkit help the developers to create the applications, providing convenient facilities for coding and testing. Together with the updates in the operational system editions, new versions of popular frameworks are developed to support the advanced features of OS. Modern frameworks must be used as a complementary sets for the development. Control of version matching is a part of testers work in quality assurance.  
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Additional Terms of App development
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Net Promoter Score (NPS)
Net Promoter Score (NPS) is an index that identifies customer loyalty to a product or company and is used to assess readiness for re-purchases. How It Works Measuring the NPS loyalty index involves several steps: Consumers are asked to answer the question “What is the probability that you would recommend a company/product/brand to your friends/acquaintances/colleagues?” On a 10-point scale, where 0 corresponds to the answer “I will not recommend it in any way”, and 10 - “ I will surely recommend. " Based on the estimates obtained, all consumers are divided into 3 groups: 9-10 points - product/brand promoters, 7-8 points - passives, 0-6 points - detractors. Calculation of the NPS index itself. NPS =% supporters -% critics As a result, the the user’s loyalty score calculated on the scale from -100 to 100. If all the customers are willing to recommend the product, the score will be about 90-100, if they are not willing to recommend it - the NPS will drop to -90-100 points.   NPS trade mark was registered for the marketing tool, which automates the calculation of the above mentioned data. History Frederick Reichheld is considered the founder of the method, who first announced the method in the article “One Number You Need to Grow”, published in the Harvard Business Review in December 2003. In 2006, he released a book entitled “The Ultimate Question: Driving Good Profits and True Growth”. He continued his arguments on the loyalty, profitability and growth of the company. In 2010, Reichheld conducted research in more than 400 American companies, where the main task was to measure the influence of customer loyalty (measured by NPS) on its growth rate. The main result was the conclusion that the average NPS by market in the industry was 16%, but for companies such as eBay and Amazon NPS it was 75%. Reichheld does not say that communication is present everywhere: it is absent altogether in monopolistic markets. However, industries such as passenger air travel, insurance, and car rental have become a prime example of interconnection. This is obvious, since these companies are service providers, where customer satisfaction and loyalty depend on the level of customer service. As a result, many companies have become adherents of this technology, including Apple, American Express,  eBay, Amazon, Allianz, P & G, Intuit,, Philips, etc. For certain industries, especially software, it has been proven that detractors often stay with the company while passives leave.  This seems to be a relatively high barrier to trade. Faced with criticism of the promoter's score, proponents of the network promoter's approach stated that the proposed statistical analysis only proved that the "recommendation" problem was similar to other indicators in predictive capacity, but failed to solve the real problem and this is the core of the argument presented by Reichheld. Proponents of the method also argue that third-party data analysis is not as good as analyzing the company in its own set of customers, and the actual benefits of the method (simple communication concepts, short survey, customer follow-up features ) exceed any statistical disadvantage of the approach. They also allow inquiries using any other issues to be used in the net promotion system, as long as it meets the criteria to securely classify customers as promoters, passives and detractors.
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Headless browser
is a web browser, which communicates with the user in the command-line mode, without a traditional graphical interface. Headless browsers can automate the controls of a web page in an environment similar to some popular browsers. They are particularly useful for testing web pages because they correctly interpret HTML, style sheets and JavaScript execution with AJAX - such functions that are not always available during testing. In 2009, Google began using headless browsers to help its search engine index AJAX3 sites. Headless Browsers Use Cases Headless browsers can be used for: Web app tests automation. Web page screenshots. Automated tests for JavaScript libraries. Web scraping to data recovery. Website interaction automation. Malicious Use Cases Headless browsers can also be used to: Perform DDOS attacks against websites. Increase the number of views. Automatically search for sites for fraudulent use, for example, confidential identifiers. List of Headless Browsers Here is a list of browsers offering headless functions: PhantomJS - a headless browser using the WebKit engine for rendering its pages and JavaScriptCore for javascript execution. PhantomJS was originally developed in 2010. HTMLUnit - also headless, written in Java. HTMLUnit uses Rhino for the JavaScript. TrifleJS - a version of the scriptable Internet Explorer browser that uses the Trident rendering engine and the V8 JavaScript engine. TrifleJS uses the same API as PhantomJS and, works by using the WebBrowser object of the .NET WebBrowser framework to control the version of IE installed on the machine. Splash - it has HTTP API, Lua scripting and an IPython IDE. Splash is written in Python and uses the WebKit rendering engine. Weboob - a Python library. Emulated Headless Browser These browsers emulate the environment of a browser Zombie.js. a navigation environment for Node.js20,21. ENVJS. a navigation environment is written in JavaScript for the Rhino engine. While they are able to support common browsing functions (HTML parsing, XHR, cookie support, etc.), they can not render and have limited support for DOM events. They usually run faster than a typical browser, but are unable to correctly interpret many sites.
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Frame
is a unit of digital data transmission in computer and telecommunication networks. In a packet-switched system, a frame is a simple container for a network. In other telecommunication systems, frames are repeating structures that support time division multiplexing. Frame (HTML) - in web-design: the presentation of multiple HTML documents on a separate web page. Frame rate is the number of images displayed on the screen per time unit, usually expressed in FPS (frames per second) Frame (GUI), a box to save other widgets in the graphical user interface A frame typically includes a synchronization feature that has a sequence of bits, ‘or symbols’, indicating the receiver, the received symbol, or the beginning and end of the upload data in the bit stream. If the receiver is connected to the system during transmission, it will ignore the information until it detects a new frame synchronization sequence. Packet switching In the OSI model of a computer network, a frame is a data unit of the link layer. The frame is the result of the last encapsulation layer before the data is transferred by the physical layer. Each frame is separated from the next frame by an interval. It is a series of bits, usually consisting of a frame synchronization, a packet payload, and a frame check sequence. Examples include Point-to-Point Protocol  frames,Fiber Channel frames, Ethernet frames, and V.42 modem frames. Typically, several frames of different sizes are nested within each other. For example, when using the PPP protocol in asynchronous serial communication, the 8 bits of each byte consist of a start bit and a stop bit, and the payload data bytes in the network packet are framed by the header and footer, several packets can be framed with bound bytes. Time division multiplexing In telecommunications, particularly time division multiplexing (TDM) and time division multiple access variants (TDMA), a frame is a cyclically repeated block of data consisting of a fixed number of time slots; each interval is time used for Logical TDM channels or TDMA transmitters. In this context, a framework is usually an entity at the physical layer. Examples of TDM applications are SONET / SDH circuit-switched B channels and ISDN, while TDMA examples are circuit-switched data used in early cellular voice services. This frame is also an entity for time division duplexing, wherein the handset can transmit during certain time slots while receiving other slots.
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