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In-app purchases

In-app purchases (IAP) are products offered for purchase within the app. Users typically make in-app purchases to access special content or features, such as virtual currency, power-ups, restricted levels, enhancements, and more.

The purchase process is performed directly in the app, in most cases seamlessly for the user. Mobile platform providers facilitate the purchase and take a share of the payment transferred  (usually about 30%) and the rest goes to the application owner.

  • In-App purchase first saw the light of day in October 2009 on Apple's App Store with the release of iOS 3.0.
  • In September 2010, BlackBerry App World added support for in-app purchases.
  • In March 2011, Google added in-app billing as an in-app purchase version for Android users.

Currently, Apple offers 4 types of in-app purchases: non-replenishable, replenishable, one-time, and auto-renewing subscription. IAP can be used in premium as well as in free apps, also known as freemium.

Non-replenishable - This kind of purchase is applied to one-time payments, such as access to some features of an app. The user pays once and the access to services is transferred to all connected devices, authorized within the same iTunes account.

Replenishable -  These purchases can be found in games and require payment multiple times, for example, on different devices.  

One-time subscription - The subscription has a limited period. It can be seasonal, or just services available in certain time periods. When the term ends, you must renew this subscription manually.

Auto-renewing subscription - The subscription will be repeated automatically in a certain time period, if there is enough money on the user’s account.

In 2012 Apple has introduced a mandatory condition for developers: in the description of an app that has IAP, there must necessarily be a note indicating this. If the program contains purchases, near the "Price", "Buy" or "Get"  button you’ll see “Offers In-App Purchases” or “In-App Purchases.” On the iPhone, iPad or iPod touch, you’ll see it below the name of the program.

To make a purchase in the app, you must use the Touch ID or enter the Apple ID password.

You may use restrictions to enable or disable certain types of purchases on the iPhone, iPad or iPod touch or set the Parental Control function in iTunes on a Mac or PC.

 Read more about mobile app monetization

Additional Terms
is an application store accessed via iTunes containing various apps for iPhone smartphones, iPod Touch, iPad tablets, and also for Mac personal computers and allowing to buy them or download for free. Similar to Google Play for Android applications. The App Store offers more than 1.5 million apps for iPhone and iPod Touch and about 1 million for the iPad; The number of downloads exceeded 100 billion; The user base is about 575 million. Applications are divided into many categories, including games and social networking apps. Costs for an App range from $ 0.99 to $ 9.99, and significantly more for professional software. However, most apps are distributed through the App Store for free. The store is supervised by Apple experts. Each application is equipped with a special electronic certificate. If somebody starts to commit illegal actions with the purchased program, they will remove it from the database, and developers will be "severely reprimanded". Revenues from sales of apps are distributed as follows - the authors receive 70%, Apple collects 30% of the share in order to maintain the store. Officially, Apple claims that they don’t intend to make money on sales. Developers also have an opportunity to release free apps. It is also interesting that all purchased programs can be registered in iTunes to download all the new updates. In the iPod Touch, the App Store service works when you connect to the Internet via Wi-Fi. So users can buy and download apps through the wireless network from anywhere. Applications are available either for free or have a certain cost which is charged from the user's account in the iTunes Store. The App Store will promptly notify the user about the latest updates, which happens regularly. The App Store service is available in iTunes for both Macs and personal computers, wherein apps are synchronized with the iPhone or iPod Touch via a USB interface.
is the skeleton of the software system (or subsystem). It includes code libraries, auxiliary programs, programming language and other software that facilitates the programming and integration of various components of a large project. Usually, the union is due to the use of a single API. Examples: web frameworks like PHP frameworks Zend Framework and Symfony, or Django, written in Python. "Framework" differs from the “library” in that the latter can be used in a software product simply as a set of subprograms of similar functionality, without affecting the architecture of the software product and without imposing any restrictions on it. While the "framework" dictates the rules for building the architecture of an app, setting the default behavior at the initial stage of development - the "framework," which will need to be expanded and changed, according to the specified requirements. The Application Framework One of the main advantages of using "frameworks" in applications is that such items speed up the development of the software. Some examples of frameworks are the "standard" solution for printing documents, email processing, which can be integrated in the structure of the app. "Frameworks" became popular with the advent of graphical user interfaces (GUI). One of the first commercial app frameworks was MacApp, written by Apple for Macintosh. Originally created with the help of an extended (object-oriented) version of the language Object Pascal, it was subsequently rewritten to C ++. The examples of application frameworks are: Cocoa for Mac OS X, as well as free frameworks that exist as part of Mozilla, GNOME,, and KDE projects. Microsoft had a similar product for Windows, called Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC). At the moment, the main Microsoft product for software development is the .NET Framework. Cross-platform app frameworks (for Macintosh, Linux, and Windows operating systems) are, for example, widget toolkit, wxWidgets, Qt, MyCoRe or FOX toolkit help the developers to create the applications, providing convenient facilities for coding and testing. Together with the updates in the operational system editions, new versions of popular frameworks are developed to support the advanced features of OS. Modern frameworks must be used as a complementary sets for the development. Control of version matching is a part of testers work in quality assurance.  
is a business model that offers the use of software applications, online services, or computer games for free, while an enhanced (improved, premium) version of the product, with advanced functionality, services, or other related features, are offered for an additional fee. In the 1990-2000s, programs distributed under the terms "freemium", as a rule, belonged to the shareware group. Since 2010, "freemium" is regarded as a separate class of software. Usually, a freemium model is used when it is important to attract more potential customers to the project. To implement this strategy, the owner sets the lowest possible entry threshold for using the app. In this case, as a result, the share of paying users is quite small. The ability to pay for the full version without leaving the mobile application, transfers freemium apps to the category of projects that support in-app purchase. Product distribution based on the "freemium" model serves to: Attract a wide range of users; Receive feedback from users; Estimate a demand for a product (service) in the market; Identify people and organizations willing to pay for a product (service) with improved qualities; and others. Most software products provided on the basis of the "freemium" model are limited to: Set of available functions; Amount of free space; Number of licenses; Sphere of usage  (for example, free antivirus only for home use or only for educational institutions). "Free-to-play" is the term used for massive multiplayer online games (MMOG).You can play for free, but make regular small purchases to gain additional features or advanced conditions, improving your playing potential. Most social games are monetized this way; provided that you buy game currency for real money first, and then spend it on virtual items. Mobile application stores like Google Play and the App Store almost profit by the "free-to-play"/"freemium" programs.
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Internet of Things (IoT)
Internet of Things (IoT) is a concept of a network of physical objects ("things") equipped with built-in technologies for interaction with each other or with the environment, considering the organisation of such networks as a phenomenon capable of restructuring economic and social processes, excluding from the part of actions and operations the need for human participation. For 2018, the term "Internet of Things" extends not only to cyberphysical systems for "home" use, but also to industrial facilities. Means of identification The involvement in the IoT of objects of the physical world, not necessarily equipped with means of connection to data transmission networks, requires the use of technologies for the identification of these items ("things"), as all techs used for automatic identification can be used as such technologies: optical identifiers barcodes, Data Matrix, QR codes), means of locating in real time. With the comprehensive dissemination of the "Internet of things", it is essential to ensure the uniqueness of object identifiers, which, in turn, requires standardisation. Measuring A special role in the Internet of things is played by measurement tools that ensure the information transformation about the external environment into machine-readable data, and thereby fill the computing environment with meaningful information. A wide range of measuring tools is used, from elementary sensors (for example, temperature, pressure, illumination), consumption meters (such as smart meters) to complex integrated measuring systems. Data transmission The range of possible data transmission technologies covers all possible means of wireless and wired networks. For wireless data transmission, qualities such as efficiency at low speeds, fault tolerance, adaptability, and the possibility of self-organization play a particularly important role in building the "Internet of things". Among wired technologies, PLC solutions - technologies for building data transmission networks over transmission lines play an important role in penetrating the "Internet of things", as many applications have access to power networks (for example, vending machines, ATMs, smart meters, lighting controllers are initially connected to the network power supply).
Operating System (OS)
Operating system (OS) - a set of interrelated programs designed to manage computer resources, such as CPU, memory, file storage, input / output (I / O) devices, user interaction, and network connection. Unlike most programs that terminate after completing the task, the OS continues to run and eventually shut down when the computer is turned off. A modern multiprocessing OS allows the execution of processes, each of which belongs to a "thread" of the calculation used to execute the program. One form of multiprocessing is called timesharing, which allows multiple users to access the computer by quickly switching between them. The most sensitive and important task for modern operating systems is to allocate the CPU; Each process is allowed to use the CPU for a limited period, which can be a fraction of a second, and then it must be terminated and suspended until the next cycle. As it switches between processes, it saves all data. Mobile operating system (mobile OS) - an operating system for smartphones, tablets, PDAs or other mobile devices. Although laptops can be attributed to mobile devices, however, the operating systems commonly used on them are not considered mobile because they were originally developed for large stationary desktop computers that traditionally did not have special "mobile" functions, and did not need them. This difference is blurry in some new operating systems, representing a hybrid of both. Mobile OS combines the functionality of the PC OS with functions for mobile and handheld devices: touch screen, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, GPS navigation, camera, speech recognition, voice recorder, music player, NFC and infrared remote control. Portable mobile devices (for example, smartphones) contain two operating systems: The main software platform for user interaction Low-level proprietary real-time OS. Modern operating systems for mobile devices include Android, iOS, Windows 10 Mobile, and others. Obsolete, now unsupported software platforms: Symbian, Windows Mobile, Palm OS, webOS, BlackBerry OS, Firefox OS, Ubuntu Touch, and others. Functions Execution of program requests (input and output of data, start and stop of other programs, allocation and freeing of additional memory, etc.). Standardized access to peripheral devices (input-output devices). Management of random access memory (RAM) - distribution between processes, organization of virtual memory. Providing a user interface. Saving information about system errors. Additional functions: Parallel or pseudo-parallel execution of tasks (multitasking). Effective allocation of resources of the computing system between processes. Prioritisation of processes and their access to resources. Interaction between processes: data exchange, mutual synchronization. Protection of the system itself, as well as user data and programs from user actions (malicious or ignorant) or software applications. Management of the multi-user access and control of different level of access rights. Special types of software called virtual machines can actually mimic "real" computers and run different operating systems from within them.
Virtual Reality (VR)
Virtual reality (VR) is the computer-generated simulation of a three-dimensional world, which can be experienced by a person through equipement, usually headgear with sensors. VR simulates a realistic environment, in which actions and responses is performed in real time. The objects of VR usually behave closely to that of their counterparts in the real world. The user can act on these objects in accordance with the laws of physics (gravity, water properties, collision with objects, reflection, etc.). However, often for entertainment purposes, users of virtual worlds can go do things that are hitherto not possible in real life (for example: to fly or to rise from the dead.) Do not confuse virtual reality with augmented reality(AR). Their fundamental difference is that the VR constructs a new artificial world, and AR only brings in individual artificial elements into the perception of the real. Implementation Systems of "virtual reality" are devices that simulate interaction with the virtual environment, by affecting all five of the human senses. Currently, there are several basic types of systems that provide the formation and output of images in VR systems: Headset / virtual reality glasses (HMD - display) Modern headsets of virtual reality are glasses rather than a helmet, and contain one or more displays that show images for the left and right eyes, a lens system for adjusting the geometry of the image, and a tracking system for the device orientation in space. MotionParallax3D displays Devices of this type include many different gadgets: from some smartphones to rooms of virtual reality (CAVE). Systems of this type form the user's illusion of a three-dimensional object by outputting specially created projections of virtual objects. These are generated on the basis of information about the position of the user's eyes to one or several displays. Virtual retinal monitor Devices of this type form an image directly on an eye retina. As a result, a user sees an image "hanging" in the air in front of him.
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