OLTP (Online Transaction Processing) is a real-time transaction operation platform. This is a method of organising a database in which the system operates with small transactions while going through a large task flow, while at the same time the client requires a minimum response time from the system.
The term OLTP is also applied to systems. OLTP-systems are designed for input, structured storage and processing of information (operations, documents) in real time.
OLTP-applications cover a wide range of tasks in many industries – automated banking systems, ERP-systems (enterprise resource planning systems), banking and stock exchange operations, in production – conveyor passage registration, fixation of website visit statistics, accounting automation, inventory management and accounting of documents, etc.
OLTP applications, as a rule, automate structured, repetitive tasks of data processing, such as order entry and banking transactions. OLTP-systems are designed, configured and optimised for the maximum number of transactions in short periods of time. As a rule, great flexibility is not required here, and most often a fixed set of reliable and safe methods of data input, modification, deletion and operational reporting release is used.
An efficiency indicator is the number of transactions performed per second. Typically, the analytical capabilities of OLTP-systems are strongly limited.
High reliability of data as a consequence of a transactional approach. A transaction is either complete and successful or else does not occur and the system returns to the previous state. At the outcome of any given transaction the integrity of the data is not violated.
OLTP-systems are optimised for small, discrete transactions. However, requests for some complex information (for example, sales volumes quarterly dynamics for a certain product model in a particular branch), characteristic for analytical applications (OLAP), will generate complex connections and view tables as a whole. One such request will take a significant amount of time and computer resources, which will slow down the processing of current transactions.
Therefore, the approach to the structure of the DB must be set based on operations. If the task is to analyse vast quantities of data, another DB structure should be chosen.