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Web 2.0

Web 2.0 is a technique for designing systems that, by taking into account network interactions, become better when more people use them.

In fact, the term "Web 2.0" refers to projects and services that are actively developed and improved by users themselves: blogs, wikis, social networks, etc.

The peculiarity of Web 2.0 is the process of attracting users to filling and multiple reconciliations of information material.

Collective mind in action

"Web 2.0" is not a new version of the "World Wide Web," but only continues to use the technologies and concepts of "Web 1.0". Many of the ideas in Web 2.0 had already been in existence on the network long before the term Web 2.0 came into being. For example, the Amazon.com site allows users to write reviews and manuals since its inception in 1995.

Key tags

Keywords describe the object, or relate it to a category. These are sort of tags that are assigned to an object for search purposes.

The emergence and rapid spread of blogs also fits into the concept of Web 2.0, creating a so-called "writable web".

The ability to mark the document with the keywords exists in HTML language, however, this method was completely compromised by its wide use for search spam.

Socialization of the site

Use of functionality that allows you to create a community.

  • In the concept of socializing the site, you can also include the ability to customize the content and create a personal zone (personal files, images, videos, blogs) for the visitor to make the user feel unique and involved.
  • Encouraging, supporting and trusting "collective intelligence".

When forming a community, an important element is competition, such as good reputation, which allows the community to self-regulate and give users additional goals on the site.

Design

The concept of Web 2.0 is also reflected in the design. Roundness was preferred, imitation of convex surfaces, reflections in the manner of glossy plastic of modern hi-end devices (for example, players). The graphics of such sites take more volume, rather than using the ascetic design. In part, this trend is related to the concurrent release of new versions of operating systems that use the above ideas. Along with the graphics, Web 2.0 has a tendency to significantly increase the font sizes for the importance of content, especially for headings, to express them more clearly against a background of colorful graphic design, as well as providing text content with more space.

However, the graphic appearance of the classic Web 2.0 design is considered obsolete and not creative. This is especially reflected in the current trend of creating informative websites, where simplicity, elegance, graphics and usability play a major role.

Additional Terms
Keyword
is a word in the text that gives a concise description of the content of a text document, which allows user to better identify its subject matter. Keywords in the Web are used mainly for searching and are the main way to organize content. Keywords in Text Analysis Key words in text analysis, (including when building an index in search engines), are especially important and representative of a particular nature of words in a text, the set of which can give a high-level description of its content for the reader. Key words (KW) are characterized by the following traits: Frequency - the most common denote the feature of the object, state or effect; Represented by significant vocabulary, sufficiently generalized in their semantics, degree of abstraction, and style. Interrelation - connected with each other by a network of semantic links, intersections of meanings; If the KWs are repeated too often in the text, the search engines may regard this as spam and not promote the given page. The KW set defines the index of words, their frequency, and predictability. Keyword in the markup of web pages In HTML, to specify keywords, there are meta elements with the respective keywords. This way of specifying keywords opens up even more opportunities for abuse. As a result, only some search engines use this metatag as a factor to improve the ranking of the pages, while others don’t. Historically, this aspect was overused in SEO and is now ignored by the leading search engines, like Google. For example, Google often ignores the keywords in the tag, because of too much abuse in the past. However, they are used by other user agents (for example, web browsers for searching bookmarks). In XHTML microformats, the keywords describing the document are presented as a list of links, each of which should lead to a page containing a list of documents that also has this keyword. Thus, the possibility of abuse is somewhat reduced, since each link should lead to real content. For such keywords, the term "tags" are more often used, and at the code level they are implemented using the micro-format tag-rel.
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Metadata
discloses information about the characteristics and properties that describe any entities that allow to automatically search and manage them in large information flows. The Difference Between Data and Metadata It is usually impossible to make an unambiguous division into data and metadata in a document because: Something can be both data and metadata. Thus, the title of an article can be simultaneously referred to as metadata (as a metadata element - the title), and to the actual data (since the title is part of the text itself). According to the usual definition, metadata is a set of structured information. You can create metadata for metadata, for output to special devices, or read their descriptions using text-to-speech software. Classification of metadata Metadata can be classified by The content. Metadata can either describe the resource itself (for example, the name and size of the file), or the content of the resource (for example, "this video shows how to play football"). The resource as a whole. Metadata can refer to a resource as a whole or to parts of it. For example, "Title" (movie name) refers to the movie, and "Scene description" (the description of the movie episode) is separate for each episode of the film. Logical inference. Metadata can be divided into three layers: the bottom layer is raw data; middle layer - metadata describing the specified "raw" data; and the top layer is metadata, which allows you to make a logical conclusion using the second layer. The three most commonly used metadata classes are: Internal metadata, which describes the structure or constituent parts of a thing. For example, the format and size of the file. Administrative metadata required for information processing. Such as, information about the author, the editor, the date of publication, etc. Descriptive metadata that describe the nature of a thing, its attributes. For example, a set of information-related categories, links to other subjects related to the the item in question. In search engine optimisation SEO-experts concentrate on the concrete part of metadata - HTML-tags: <title>,< description>,< h1>,< keyword>.  It’s the particular examples of metadata.
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Search Engine
Search engine (SE) is a computer system designed to search for information. The most well-known search engine applications are web services for searching text or graphic information on the World Wide Web. There are also systems that can search for files on FTP servers, products in online stores, and information in news groups. To search for information using a search engine, the user formulates a search query. The job of the search engine is to find documents containing either the specified keywords or words related to the user's request. In this case, the search engine generates a search results page. Some engines also extract information from suitable databases and resource directories on the Internet. Search and maintenance methods are divided into four types of search engines: systems using search robots, systems controlled by humans, hybrid and meta. The architecture usually includes: A search robot (crawler) that collects information from websites or from other documents, Index, providing a quick search for the accumulated information, and Search engine - a system with a graphic user interface for the user. How does the search engine work? As a rule, systems operate in stages: The crawler receives the content; The indexer generates an index DB with structured data that is searchable; The SE provides functionality for searching indexed data. To update the search engine’s collected information, this indexing cycle is repeated. Search engines work by storing information about web pages, receiving their HTML code and URLs(Uniform Resource Locator). A crawler is a program that automatically passes through all the links found on the page and highlights them. A crawler, based on references or based on a predefined list of addresses, searches for new documents not yet known to the search engine. The site owner can exclude certain pages using robots.txt, which can be used to prevent the indexing of special files, pages or directories of the site. The search engine analyzes the content of each page for further indexing. Words can be extracted from headers, page text or special fields - meta tags. A separate crawler is looking for new URLs via scanning the links in the internet. Another robot is visiting each of the new pages to analyse the information and add it to the indexed DB. An index is a module that analyzes a page by first breaking it into parts using its own lexical and morphological algorithms. All the elements of the web page are isolated and analyzed separately. Data about web pages is stored in the index database for use in subsequent queries.
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Internet of Things (IoT)
Internet of Things (IoT) is a concept of a network of physical objects ("things") equipped with built-in technologies for interaction with each other or with the environment, considering the organisation of such networks as a phenomenon capable of restructuring economic and social processes, excluding from the part of actions and operations the need for human participation. For 2018, the term "Internet of Things" extends not only to cyberphysical systems for "home" use, but also to industrial facilities. Means of identification The involvement in the IoT of objects of the physical world, not necessarily equipped with means of connection to data transmission networks, requires the use of technologies for the identification of these items ("things"), as all techs used for automatic identification can be used as such technologies: optical identifiers barcodes, Data Matrix, QR codes), means of locating in real time. With the comprehensive dissemination of the "Internet of things", it is essential to ensure the uniqueness of object identifiers, which, in turn, requires standardisation. Measuring A special role in the Internet of things is played by measurement tools that ensure the information transformation about the external environment into machine-readable data, and thereby fill the computing environment with meaningful information. A wide range of measuring tools is used, from elementary sensors (for example, temperature, pressure, illumination), consumption meters (such as smart meters) to complex integrated measuring systems. Data transmission The range of possible data transmission technologies covers all possible means of wireless and wired networks. For wireless data transmission, qualities such as efficiency at low speeds, fault tolerance, adaptability, and the possibility of self-organization play a particularly important role in building the "Internet of things". Among wired technologies, PLC solutions - technologies for building data transmission networks over transmission lines play an important role in penetrating the "Internet of things", as many applications have access to power networks (for example, vending machines, ATMs, smart meters, lighting controllers are initially connected to the network power supply).
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Operating System (OS)
Operating system (OS) - a set of interrelated programs designed to manage computer resources, such as CPU, memory, file storage, input / output (I / O) devices, user interaction, and network connection. Unlike most programs that terminate after completing the task, the OS continues to run and eventually shut down when the computer is turned off. A modern multiprocessing OS allows the execution of processes, each of which belongs to a "thread" of the calculation used to execute the program. One form of multiprocessing is called timesharing, which allows multiple users to access the computer by quickly switching between them. The most sensitive and important task for modern operating systems is to allocate the CPU; Each process is allowed to use the CPU for a limited period, which can be a fraction of a second, and then it must be terminated and suspended until the next cycle. As it switches between processes, it saves all data. Mobile operating system (mobile OS) - an operating system for smartphones, tablets, PDAs or other mobile devices. Although laptops can be attributed to mobile devices, however, the operating systems commonly used on them are not considered mobile because they were originally developed for large stationary desktop computers that traditionally did not have special "mobile" functions, and did not need them. This difference is blurry in some new operating systems, representing a hybrid of both. Mobile OS combines the functionality of the PC OS with functions for mobile and handheld devices: touch screen, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, GPS navigation, camera, speech recognition, voice recorder, music player, NFC and infrared remote control. Portable mobile devices (for example, smartphones) contain two operating systems: The main software platform for user interaction Low-level proprietary real-time OS. Modern operating systems for mobile devices include Android, iOS, Windows 10 Mobile, and others. Obsolete, now unsupported software platforms: Symbian, Windows Mobile, Palm OS, webOS, BlackBerry OS, Firefox OS, Ubuntu Touch, and others. Functions Execution of program requests (input and output of data, start and stop of other programs, allocation and freeing of additional memory, etc.). Standardized access to peripheral devices (input-output devices). Management of random access memory (RAM) - distribution between processes, organization of virtual memory. Providing a user interface. Saving information about system errors. Additional functions: Parallel or pseudo-parallel execution of tasks (multitasking). Effective allocation of resources of the computing system between processes. Prioritisation of processes and their access to resources. Interaction between processes: data exchange, mutual synchronization. Protection of the system itself, as well as user data and programs from user actions (malicious or ignorant) or software applications. Management of the multi-user access and control of different level of access rights. Special types of software called virtual machines can actually mimic "real" computers and run different operating systems from within them.
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Virtual Reality (VR)
Virtual reality (VR) is the computer-generated simulation of a three-dimensional world, which can be experienced by a person through equipement, usually headgear with sensors. VR simulates a realistic environment, in which actions and responses is performed in real time. The objects of VR usually behave closely to that of their counterparts in the real world. The user can act on these objects in accordance with the laws of physics (gravity, water properties, collision with objects, reflection, etc.). However, often for entertainment purposes, users of virtual worlds can go do things that are hitherto not possible in real life (for example: to fly or to rise from the dead.) Do not confuse virtual reality with augmented reality(AR). Their fundamental difference is that the VR constructs a new artificial world, and AR only brings in individual artificial elements into the perception of the real. Implementation Systems of "virtual reality" are devices that simulate interaction with the virtual environment, by affecting all five of the human senses. Currently, there are several basic types of systems that provide the formation and output of images in VR systems: Headset / virtual reality glasses (HMD - display) Modern headsets of virtual reality are glasses rather than a helmet, and contain one or more displays that show images for the left and right eyes, a lens system for adjusting the geometry of the image, and a tracking system for the device orientation in space. MotionParallax3D displays Devices of this type include many different gadgets: from some smartphones to rooms of virtual reality (CAVE). Systems of this type form the user's illusion of a three-dimensional object by outputting specially created projections of virtual objects. These are generated on the basis of information about the position of the user's eyes to one or several displays. Virtual retinal monitor Devices of this type form an image directly on an eye retina. As a result, a user sees an image "hanging" in the air in front of him.
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